ANTHROPOLOGY: Ch. 5
Terms in this set (34)
thermoregulatory adaptation to hair loss in humans
Sweating evolved in humans as a response to what?
none of the following: A. have lower basal metabolic rate.
B. consume more carbohydrates.
C. reduce peripheral body temperatures to maintain core temperatures.
Relative to people with a history of living in temperate climates, the Inuit and other cold-adapted populations
C and D only: C. skin cancer
D. the destruction of folate
Ultraviolet radiation can be an important factor in selection for increased melanin production because UV radiation can cause which of the following?
full adult height is attained.
When epiphyses fuse to the diaphyses
both a and b: A. start off with a blueprint from an individual's DNA.
B. are strongly influenced by the environment.
Research has shown that human growth and development
Dark skin (a result of increased melanin production in equatorial peoples) is likely a response to ultraviolet radiation, because UV radiation can cause
categorized skulls into five racial types.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
states that bodies with increased mass or volume to surface area are optimal for cold climates
Bergmann's rule ____.
________ states that heat-adapted mammals will have long limbs, which maximize the body's surface area.
this individual predominantly used his or her left arm for either sporting activities or daily use.
In an anatomy lab you are shown both of the upper arm bones of a single individual. You note in your lab book that the diameter of the left arm bone is significantly larger than that of the right arm bone. From this you infer that
smaller diameter of blood vessels.
Functional adaptations to high altitude include all of the following except
the fact that growth is often related to nutrition and other environmental factors.
The fact that Turkana children are often initially shorter than American children is indicative of
says that bone mass is taken away where it is needed and produced where it is not needed.
individuals who moved to the region as children have greater lung volumes than individuals who moved to the area as adults.
While conducting a study on hypoxia among individuals living in the Peruvian Andes, you have been able to show that individuals in the population have likely suffered hypoxia and/or resided there for long periods of time. You know this because
can be traced to the Renaissance, when seafaring travelers observed differences between people from distant lands.
Loring Brace argued that the race concept
schedules growth, but environment and events influence actual development.
Which of the following contributes most to skin color?
showed that U.S.-born children had different head shapes than their immigrant parents.
populations adapted to hot climates have more efficient reactions to heat stress.
Global studies on human thermoregulation have revealed
a main cause of hip fractures in older women.
whether evolution is occurring at a given locus
Population geneticists use the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation to determine ____.
body shape and morphology reflect both evolutionary and developmental processes.
Although Bergmann's and Allen's rules most often explain body shape and morphology, we occasionally see variations from the correct patterns. This indicates that
all of the above: A. races account for only a small amount of biological variation.
B. the distribution of biological traits follow a cline.
C. traits do not agree with their frequency and distribution.
Race is not a valid biological concept because
vary with an individual's level of physical activity.
The strength and mass of bone
all of these: A. results from the lack of lactase
B. has a genetic basis
C. is a good example of biocultural evolution
D. can be influenced by the environment
Lactose intolerance ____.
Which of the following is key to maintaining internal homeostasis?
Which of the following is the expansion of blood vessels near the body's surface in response to excessive heat?
Mongoloids, Malays, Ethiopians, American Indians, and Caucasoids.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach categorized humans into the following races
The population is one point on the continuum of variation observed in Allen's rule.
Results from anthropomorphic measurements of Turkana pastoralists indicate long limbs. This suggests which of the following?
with alleles for high oxygen saturation in their hemoglobin had more surviving children
Hypoxia has been shown to be an agent of natural selection because Tibetan women
were positively affected by access to medical care.
The average heights of European-American males in the United States fluctuated between 1710 and 1970 and
through research indicating that most genetic variation is found across human populations.
R. C. Lewontin found that human "races" have no taxonomic significance. He demonstrated this
none of the following: A.
developmental adaptations that occur at the population level.
acclimatization at the individual level.
developmental adaptations that occur at the level of the individual during critical life stages.
Children living at high altitudes develop a larger chest cavity by adulthood than children living at lower altitudes. This is an example of