Terms in this set (59)
How many Bilabials? Which?
3: /p/ /b/ /m/
How many Labiodentals? Which?
2: /f/ /v/
How many Dentals? Which?
How many Alveolars? Which?
6: /t/ /d/ /n/ /s/ /z/ /l/
How many Postalveolars? Which?
5: /ʃ/ /ʒ/ /t͡ʃ/ /d͡ʒ/ /ɹ/
How many Palatals? Which?
How many Velars? Which?
3: /k/ /g/ /ŋ/
How many Stops? Which?
6: /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/
How many Fricatives? Which?
9: /f/ /v/ /θ/ /ð/ /s/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ /h/
How many Affricates? Which?
2: /t͡ʃ/ /d͡ʒ/
How many Approximants? Which?
4: /j/ /w/ /ɹ/ /l/
How many Nasals? Which?
3: /m/ /n/ /ŋ/
unvoiced bilabial plosive
voiced bilabial plosive
unvoiced alveolar plosive
voiced alveolar plosive
unvoiced velar plosive
voiced velar plosive
voiced bilabial nasal
voiced alveolar nasal
voiced velar nasal
unvoiced labiodental fricative
voiced labiodental fricative
unvoiced dental fricative
voiced dental fricative
unvoiced alveolar fricative
voiced alveolar fricative
unvoiced postalveolar fricative
voiced postalveolar fricative
unvoiced glottal fricative
unvoiced postalveolar affricate
voiced postalveolar affricate
voiced alveolar approximant (liquid)
voiced palatal approximant (glide)
voiced labio-velar approximant (glide)
voiced alveolar (lateral) approximant (liquid)
high front long spread
high front short spread
medium front short spread
medium front long spread
low front short spread
low central long spread
medium back short round
high back long round
high back short round
high central long round
medium central long spread
Rule of "Half Long" Vowels
When a vowel or diphthong occurs before a voiced consonant, they are "half long" (slightly longer) (make vs made)
Rule of "Long" Vowels
When a vowel or diphthong are in open syllables, not closed by a consonant, they are longer (lose vs. lieu)
Rule of Nasalisation
When vowels and diphthongs are followed by a nasal, they also become nasalised (cap vs. can)
Rule of Retraction before /l/
When vowels and diphthongs are followed by syllable final /l/, the vowel/diphthongs are produced further back in the oral cavity than usual (ten vs. tel)
Rule of Aspiration (Plosives)
A voiceless plosive is released as the allophone with aspiration when it occurs in the first position in a syllable (pie vs. bye)
Rule of Unreleased/No Aspiration (Plosives)
Plosives are unreleased when
a) immediately followed by plosive or non-syllabic nasal (captain, cap)
b) they occur at the end of a word, after a vowel, before a pause (step down)
Rule of Nasalisation (Plosives)
When a plosive is followed immediately by a homorganic (same place of articulation) syllabic nasal, the release of air may be through nasal plosion (cotton, keep 'em, waging)
Rule of Lateralisation (Plosives)
When a plosive is followed immediately by a homorganic (same place of articulation) syllabic /l/, the release of air may be through lateral plosion (noodle, capital, pedal)
Rule of Approximants in Clusters
When approximants in clusters immediately follow aspirated voiceless plosives, they may become voiceless (twin, pram)
Velarized /l/ or "Dark" /l/
When /l/ occurs after a vowel within a syllable, it is usually "velarized" - double contract of tongue tip with alveolar and back of tongue raises towards velum (feel, bowl)
4 Distributional Constraints (Phonotactics)
1. Consonants cannot be the nucleus of a syllable, and a vowel cannot be the offset and onset of a syllable
2. The short vowels of English cannot appear in open syllables (CV or V)
3. /ŋ/ cannot occur in syllable initial position in English
4. /ʊ/ never occurs in Syllable Initial position in English and /ʉ:/ does so rarely
4 Combinational Constraints (Phonotactics)
1. No long vowels can precede /ŋ/ in English
2a. /h/ /t͡ʃ/ /z/ /d͡ʒ/ /ð/ do not cluster in Syllable Initial
2b. /w/ /j/ /l/ /ɹ/ cannot be the first element of an English cluster
3. 2-element Syllable Initial cluster rules:
a. Stop + liquid/glide (/pl/ /tɹ/ /bj/)
b. /s/ + voiceless stop (/st/ /sp/ /sk/)
c. /s/ + fronted nasal (/sm/ /sn/)
d. voiceless fricative + glide (/fl/ /θɹ/ /sl/)
4. Up to 5 consonants may cluster in Syllable Final in English, and in less restricted combinations than Syllable Initial clusters, but they are rare