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Joint Operations Planning Process
Terms in this set (16)
Joint Operation Planning Process
an orderly, analytical process, which consists of a set of logical steps to examine a mission; develop, analyze, and compare alternative COAs; select the best COA; and produce a plan or order. Operational art and the application of operational design provide the conceptual basis for structuring campaigns and operations discussed in Chapter III, "Operational Art and Operational Design."
Joint Operations Planning Process (steps)
1. Planning Initiation
2. Mission Analysis
3. COA development
4. COA Analysis and wargaming
5. COA comparison
6. COA approval
7. Plan or order development
Four functions of JOPP
1. Strategic guidance (2 steps)
2. Concept development (4 steps)
3. Plan Development (1 step)
4. Plan Assessment (continuous)
Planning Initiation (step 1)
Joint operation planning begins when an appropriate authority recognizes potential for military capability to be employed in response to a potential or actual crisis. At the strategic level, that authority—the President, SecDef, or CJCS—initiates planning by
deciding to develop military options.
(receive a mission)
Mission Analysis (step 2)
The commander's staff is responsible for analyzing the mission and proposing, if required, the restated mission for the commander's approval, thus allowing subordinate and supporting commanders to begin their own estimate and planning efforts and for higher headquarters' concurrence. The joint force's mission is the task or set of tasks, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason for doing so.
(1) What tasks must my command do for the mission to be accomplished?
(2) What is the purpose of the mission received?
(3) What limitations have been placed on my own forces' actions?
(4) What forces/assets are needed to support my operation?
Course of Action development (step 3)
A COA is a potential way (solution, method) to accomplish the assigned mission. The staff develops COAs to provide unique choices to the commander, all oriented on accomplishing the military end state.
Course of Action Analysis (step 4)
COA analysis is the process of closely examining potential COAs to reveal details that will allow the commander and staff to tentatively identify COAs that are valid, and then compare these COAs. COA analysis identifies advantages and disadvantages of
each proposed friendly COA.
- is COA feasible?
- is it acceptable?
Course of Action Comparison (step 5)
COA comparison is a subjective process whereby COAs are considered independently and evaluated/compared against a set of criteria that are established by the staff and commander. The goal is to identify and recommend the COA that has the highest
probability of success against the enemy COA that is of the most concern to the commander.
- What are the differences between each COA?
- what are the advantages and disadvantages?
- what are the risks?
Course of Action Approval (step 6)
the staff briefs the commander on the COA comparison and
the analysis and wargaming results, including a review of important supporting information.
The staff determines the best COA to recommend to the commander. A single COA can then be approved when the crisis occurs and specific circumstances become clear. However, in CAP, the desired end state should be represented by the set of objectives the President approves before committing forces to combat.
Plan or Order Development (step 7)
Deliberate planning will result in plan development, while CAP (Crisis Action Planning) typically will lead directly to OPORD development. During plan or order development, the commander and staff, in collaboration with subordinate and supporting components and organizations, expand the approved COA into a detailed joint contingency plan or OPORD by first developing an executable CONOPS—the eventual centerpiece of the contingency plan or OPORD.
Course of Action (definition)
Potential way (solution/method) to accomplish assigned mission
-staff develops COAs
- each COA is who, what, where, when, why, how
- essential tasks must be common to all COAs
- tentative COAs are simple/brief but complete, descriptive titles, distinguishing factors may suggest titles
Plan Order development
Para 1 - Situation
Para 2 - Mission
Para 3 - Execution
Para 4 - Administration and Logistics
Para 5 - Command and control
Plan Development Activities
- Force planning
- Support planning
- Nuclear strike planning
- Deployment and redeployment
- Shortfall identification
- Feasibility analysis
- Plan review and approval
- Supporting plan development
Strategic Guidance (JIPOE function)
o Planning Initiation - when appropriate authority recognizes a potential or actual crisis. The JFC will provide initial guidance. At the Strategic level. (understand the problem)
o Mission Analysis - produces an approved mission statement. Task, purpose, limitations, and forces/assets
Concept Development (JIPOE function)
o COA development - a potential way (solution or method) to accomplish the mission
o COA analysis and war gaming - is it feasible and acceptable? Visualize how operation may play out (gives commanders an understanding of friendly and enemy COAs) "most likely and most dangerous"
o COA comparison - facilitate decision making (balance the ends, means, way and risks of each COA). Evaluated against a set of criteria. Identify the best COA. Helps the commander answer questions and understand the COAs(differences, advantages and risks).
o COA Approval - brief the commander on the COA comparison and the analysis and war-gaming results.
Plan Development (JIPOE function)
o Plan or order development - JOPP (situation, mission, execution (contains the commanders intent), administration and logistics and C2)
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