Regents Vocab Review
Terms in this set (321)
The distance above the Horizon.
A group of stars that form a recognizable pattern in the night sky.
The deflection on an object or fluid caused by the rotation of the Earth.
A free swinging weight independent of Earth's movement. Proof that Earth rotates!
The orbiting of one celestial object around another.
The spinning of an object on its axis.
The star presently sited directly over Earth's North Pole; also know as the North Star
The line or circle that forms the apparent boundary between earth and sky.
24 regions or divisions of the globe approximately coinciding with lines of Longitude (meridians). Each approximately 15 degrees of longitude apart.
The line about which a rotating body, such as the earth, turns. Extends through the poles.
A model of the sky; An imaginary sphere surrounding Earth on which celestial bodies are projected.
Long exposure photos of stars as they move across the sky
The gas part of the Earth
The living part of the Earth
The water part of the Earth
The ice part of the Earth
Sinking Ship Theory
The apparent sinking of a ship due to the curvature of the earth.
The Little Dipper
Constellation with Polaris(The North Star) at the end of its handle
The Big Dipper
Constellation that has two "pointer stars" that point to Polaris.
Altitude of Polaris
This measurement is equal to the observer's latitude in the Northern Hemisphere
Instrument used to determine latitude by measuring the position of the stars
The true shape of the Earth; a sphere that flattens at its poles and bulges at its equator.
Measurement in degrees east or west of the prime meridian.
International Date Line
The line of longitude that marks where each new day begins. 180°
0° longitude. The starting point for measuring longitude, which passes through Greenwich, England and divides the eastern and western hemispheres.
An instrument for measuring time precisely. Used to determine longitude.
Time of day when sun is highest in sky
A closed, symmetric curve shaped like an oval or circle having two foci.
The two points needed to draw an ellipse.
The force of attraction between two masses.
A depression in the ground caused by a meteorite or other object hitting the Earth's surface.
The curved path of a celestial object around another celestial object.
Perceived movement caused by the viewer's position moving not the object. It appears to be moving but it's not.
The partial or total blocking of one object in space by another.
One of the different apparent shapes of the moon or a planet as seen from Earth.
The daily changes in the elevation of the ocean surface.
A tide just after a new or full moon, when there is the greatest difference between high and low water.
A tide just after the first or third quarters of the moon when there is the least difference between high and low water.
The point in the orbit of the moon at which it is nearest to the earth.
The point in the orbit of the moon at which it is furthest from the earth.
The moon at any time after new moon and before full moon, where the light is increasing and the right side of the moon.
The moon at any time after full moon and before new moon, where the light is decreasing and the left side of the moon.
When the observable illuminated part of the moon greater than a semicircle and less than a circle.
An eclipse in which the sun is obscured by the moon.
An eclipse in which the moon appears darkened and has a reddish color as it passes into the earth's shadow.
Occurring in cycles; regularly repeated and predictable.
A lunar month that contains all of the phases of the moon. Lasts 29.5 Days.
The REAl amount of time for a revolution of the moon around the earth. Lasts 27.3 Days
The moon phase where none of the moon is illuminated.
The moon phase where 100% of the moon is illuminated.
The moon phase where 50% of the moon is illuminated on the right side.
The moon phase where 50% of the moon is illuminated on the left side.
A thin, curved moon shape that tapers at the ends. It is shaped like a croissant.
The darkest part of a shadow.
The lighter part of a shadow surrounding the darkest part
Numerous small rocky celestial bodies that orbit the Sun between Mars & Jupiter.
The theory that the Universe began from a single point (the singularity) and moved outward.
A dirty snowball orbiting the Sun in a very elliptical orbit.
A change in the perceived wavelength of Light or sound caused by the relative motion of the source.
A cluster of billions of stars.
The four outer planets of our solar system: the gas giants.
The early, stable stage in a star's life where all are undergoing fusion of hydrogen into helium.
A chunk of rock from space that is heated by friction as it encounters Earth's atmosphere.
Milky Way Galaxy
A spiral galaxy; home to our solar system.
The intermediate stage of a main sequence star where most or all of the hydrogen has been used up.
A shift in the spectral lines from the observed in the lab towards the Red end of the spectrum caused by an object moving away from the viewer.
A system of celestial objects orbiting a star.
Any particular distribution of electromagnetic radiation often showing lines or bands characteristic of the substance emitting the radiation.
A flat, rotating disc containing a cluster of billions of stars.
An average main sequence star at the center of our solar system.
The periodic change in the Sun's activity, occurring every 11 years or so.
A relatively cool dark spot appearing on the surface of the Sun. Usually associated with strong magnetic fields.
An extremely large star that survives for a relatively short period of time and then supernovas to become either a neutron star or a black hole.
The four inner planets of our solar system: the rocky planets.
The ending stage of a main sequence star; a dense core burning helium.
Any object in space.
The point in Earth's orbit where the Earth is farthest from the Sun. (A=away)
The point in Earth's orbit where the Earth is closest from the Sun.
The energy of action or motion.
The combining of two hydrogen atoms resulting in a helium atom and a release of energy. Produces stellar energy.
All matter and energy within a space.
A shift in the spectral lines from the observed in the lab towards the Blue end of the spectrum caused by an object moving towards the viewer.
Cosmic Background Microwave Radiation
Radiation left over from the Big Bang.
A stony or metallic mass from space that has reached the Earth's surface.
Unit of length that light travels in 1 year, or 5.9 trillion miles
A large celestial object that is made of gas and produces its own light.
A large cloud of dust and gas in space
A contracting cloud of gas and dust; the earliest stage of a star's life, that has not yet reached the point where sustained fusion can occur in its core
How bright a star is in solar units.
A natural satellite that revolves around a planet.
A measure of the elongation of an ellipse.
The two points needed to draw an ellipse.
The early model of celestial motion with the Earth as a stationary object at the center with all of the other objects orbiting it.
The modern model of celestial motion with the Sun at the center with all of the other objects orbiting it, except stars, which are fixed in the sky.
The distance in degrees north or south of the equator
0 degrees latitude. The sun is directly overhead here on March 21st and September 23rd. This location always gets 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night.
Tropic of Cancer
The line of latitude at 23.5° N. The sun is directly overhead here on June 21st
Tropic of Capricorn
The line of latitude at 23.5° S. The sun is directly overhead here on December 21st
The line of latitude at 66.5° N. The sun does not set here on June 21st.
The line of latitude at 66.5° S. The sun does not set here on December 21st.
Incoming Solar Radiation (Sunlight)
Angle of Insolation
The angle at which the Sun's rays hit an area on Earth.
Duration of Insolation
How long the sun is out for.
When the sun is at a high angle in the sky.
When the sun is at a low angle in the sky
Highest point of altitude, directly overhead. (90°)
December 21st, when the sun is at its southernmost point
June 21st, when the sun is at its northernmost point
Vernal (Spring) Equinox
March 21st, when the sun is directly overhead at the equator. Everywhere on earth gets 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night.
Autumnal (Fall) Equinox
September 23rd, when the sun is directly overhead at the equator. Everywhere on earth gets 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night.
A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other.
A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other.
A plate boundary where two plates slide past each other in opposite directions
An area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it.
A vent in Earth's crust through which molten rock flows
Vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core
The solid outer layer of the earth
The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats. Convection occurs in this layer.
The solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and the rigid mantle.
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core. It is the largest layer of Earth's interior.
A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth.
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
Earth's crust located under the ocean that is usually thinner but more dense than continental crust.
The portion of the earth's crust that primarily contains granite. It is thicker and less dense than oceanic crust.
Broken pieces of lithosphere that move due to convection currents in the asthenosphere.
The boundary between Earth's crust and the rigid mantle.
The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface.
Direction of the Earth's magnetic field
The periodic switch of north and south seen in minerals patterns of cooled lava.
An area of the ocean floor where the plates are separating and new oceanic crust is formed.
Region where tectonic plates pull apart at a divergent boundary on continental crust.
A deep ocean valley.
A giant wave usually caused by an earthquake beneath the ocean floor.
A string of islands formed by the volcanoes along a deep ocean trench
The area where two continental plates converge and form mountains.
The gradual movement of the continents across the earth's surface through geological time.
A large, ancient landmass that was composed of all the continents joined together.
A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side. This wave arrives second.
A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground. This wave arrives first.
The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake.
The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus.
An instrument that measures and records ground motion and can be used to determine the distance seismic waves travel
Another term for P waves
Another term for S waves
The time between the arrival of P-waves and S-waves at a location where an earthquake occurs.
P Wave Arrival
The time on the clock when the P wave arrives at a seismic station.
S Wave Arrival
The time on the clock when the S wave arrives at a seismic station.
How far a seismic station is from the epicenter of an earthquake.
P Wave Travel Time
The amount of time the P-wave traveled from the epicenter to the seismograph.
S Wave Travel Time
The amount of time the S-wave traveled from the epicenter to the seismograph.
The time on the clock when the earthquake occurred.
A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause.
A scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves.
Measure of the energy released during an Earthquake, which can be described using the Richter scale.
Zone where NO seismic waves are detected.
Vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake.
Place where data is collected by seismographs.
Solid inorganic substances occurring in nature that have a definite chemical composition. It is what all rocks are made out of.
A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter
Internal Arrangement of Atoms
Gives a mineral all of its characteristics
A measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched.
A series of 10 minerals used as a standard in determining hardness.
The way in which a mineral reflects light
The color of a mineral in powdered form
How a mineral breaks, for example cleavage or fracture.
The splitting of a mineral along smooth, flat surfaces
The way a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way.
Rock formed by the cooling and solidification of magma or lava
Molten rock beneath the earth's surface
Molten rock that has erupted onto Earth's surface.
Intrusive Igneous Rock
Rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath Earth's surface
Extrusive Igneous Rock
Rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava at Earth's surface
Rock texture with gas pockets
Formation of a metamorphic rock caused by magma coming into contact with existing rock
Metamorphism over a wide area below the crust caused by huge movements of the Earth's crust
Original rock from which a metamorphic rock formed.
Term used to describe metamorphic rocks whose grains are arranged in parallel layers or bands.
When minerals line up due to intense pressure
Arrangement of different minerals in layers that appear as bands in cross section
The process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together
The change of state from liquid to solid
Rock fragments created by weathering of a rock
A rock that has been changed by heat and pressure
A rock that forms from compressed or cemented layers of sediment
A sedimentary rock composed of weathered fragments of older rock. (Fragmental)
Sedimentary rock formed by the accumulation of plants and animal remains
Having the structure and form of a crystal; composed of crystals.
A sedimentary rock formed of material deposited of a solution by evaporation of the water.
Gases in the atmosphere that trap in longwave radiation, preventing them from escaping.
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius
Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than visible light but shorter than radio waves. Is a form of heat.
Heat moving from a warmer object to a cooler object
The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid due to density differences
The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching. Occurs in solids
Energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles.
The bending of light when it passes from one kind of material to another.
When light is caused to separate and go in different directions.
Light that is trapped by matter, when this happens, heat is created.
When light is bounced off of a surface.
How easily insolation can pass through the atmosphere
The change in state from a solid to a liquid
The change of state from a liquid to a solid
The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas
The change of state from a gas to a liquid
Unit of energy
A change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid
The emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
Process of volcanoes emitting gas into atmosphere
Bottom layer in the atmosphere - where we live, breathe . It is also where all the weather occurs
Second layer of the atmosphere, Ozone held here, absorbs UV radiation
The layer of Earth's atmosphere immediately above the stratosphere
The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases
Protective layer in atmosphere that shields earth from UV radiation. Located in the Stratosphere
The amount of water vapor in the air
The mass of water vapor contained in a certain volume of air.
The percentage of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount the air could hold.
The temperature at which the water vapor in the air becomes saturated and condensation begins.
The pushing force of the atmosphere
A mass of sinking cool air that usually bring fair weather.
A mass of rising warm air that usually bring wet, stormy weather.
The movement of air caused by cool air over the ocean moving toward the land.
A wind that blows from the land to the sea due to local temperature and pressure differences
Cloud formation that occurs when warm moist air is forced to rise up the side of a mountain.
Facing toward the direction from which the wind is blowing. Cold and wet side of the mountain.
In the direction away from the wind. Hot and Dry side of the mountain.
A body of air that has about the same temperature and moisture throughout. It gets its name from the source region over which it formed.
The front of an advancing mass of colder air.
The front of an advancing mass of warmer air.
A warm front that's overtaken by a cold front.
When a warm air mass and a cold air mass meet and no movement occurs.
A sea or land breeze over a large region near India that changes direction with the seasons. Strong wind that brings heavy rain to southern Asia in the summer.
Microscopic particles on which water vapor condenses to form cloud droplets.
Large centers of low pressure that generally travel from west to east. It has a warm front with a cold front behind it.
Lifting of air resulting when cool air acts as a barrier over which warmer, lighter air will rise.
A high-speed high-altitude airstream blowing from west to east near the top of the troposphere.
Lake Effect Snow
Snow created when cold air flows over relatively warm water then over cold land.
A line on a weather map that joins places that have the same air pressure.
An instrument used to measure temperature.
An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure.
Instrument used to measure wind direction.
An instrument used to measure wind speed.
An instrument used to measure precipitation.
Instrument used to measure water vapor content of the atmosphere.
The temperature at which all molecular motion stops. 0 Kelvin
Formed when rain falls through a layer of freezing air.
Water falling in drops from vapor condensed in the atmosphere.
Rain that falls as liquid then freezes as it hits a surface.
Precipitation falling from clouds in the form of ice crystals.
Balls of ice that form by rising and sinking in the cloud before being falling to earth.
The percentage of the total volume of a rock or sediment that consists of open spaces.
Ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow through it.
The ability of a liquid to flow against gravity up sediments.
Downward movement of water through soil.
Water that moves across the land surface and into streams and rivers.
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface.
Zone of Aeration
Region above the water table where materials are moist, but pores contain mostly air.
Zone of Saturation
Zone where all open spaces in sediment and rock are completely filled with water.
The upper surface of underground water; the upper boundary of the zone of saturation.
The layer of rock where water can no longer pass through.
The mechanical breakdown of rocks and minerals without changing the composition.
The process in which rock is broken down by changes in its chemical makeup.
Process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands.
The process by which outer rock layers are stripped away by alternating hot and cold temperatures.
The grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind.
Roots get into cracks or pores in rock, expand as they grow, wedging the rock apart
A chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen, as when iron oxidizes, forming rust.
Carbonic acid in rain causing calcite to dissolve in limestone.
A hole formed when limestone is dissolved, causing the land above to collapse.
Soil that has been moved away from its parent material by water, wind, or a glacier.
Soil that remains above its parent rock.
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away.
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations.
A deposit of wind-blown sand.
Land bordering the edges of a river or stream.
The bottom part of a river
A curve or bend in the course of a river.
Watershed (Drainage Basin)
The land area that supplies water to a river system.
The crescent-shaped, cutoff body of water that remains after a river carves a new channel.
A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake.
When a river enters an ocean, sediments organize themselves horizontally from big to small.
Sorting of sediments that occurs when mixed sediments are quickly deposited with the smallest rocks on top and the largest rocks on bottom.
A landform with high elevation and high relief.
A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level.
A large area of flat land.
The path of a stream which is influenced by topography and geological structures
The movement of a large mass of sediment or a section of land down a slope.
A slow mass movement of sediments down a hill.
A mass of rock and soil suddenly slips down a slope.
A slide of a large mass of dirt and rock down a mountain or cliff.
The sudden flow of mud down a slope because of gravity.
A fast mass movement of rocks that break loose from a steep slope.
A large mass of ice or snow sliding down a mountain.
Any large mass of ice that moves slowly over land.
A mass of floating ice that broke away from a glacier.
Unsorted sediment deposited by a glacier.
End moraine which marks the furthest advancement of a glacier.
An ice-transported boulder that was not derived from the bedrock near its present site.
An elongated hill of glacial till that is smoothed in the direction of the glacier's flow.
Lake formed when a block of glacial ice melts.
The area at the leading edge of the glacier where the meltwater flows and deposits outwash. These sediments are sorted and layered due to the running water from the melted glacier.
Effects of ocean currents and waves on the shorelines.
The movement of water and sediment down a beach caused by waves coming in to shore at an angle.
Sand deposits that are parallel to the beach.
Low, narrow, sandy islands that form offshore from a coastline.
Small river or stream that flows in to a larger river or stream; a branch of the river.
Matching up rock layers (using fossils and rock type) to determine the geologic history of an area.
A trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock.
Distinctive fossils used to establish and compare relative ages of rock layers and fossils. These fossils are widely distributed organisms that lived during only one short period.
Determining whether an object or event is older or younger than other objects or events
Determining the actual age of an event or object in years.
Process in which some isotopes break down into stable elements
Length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay.
Law of Uniformitarianism
The idea that the same processes we see occurring now also occurred in the past.
A gap in the geologic record that shows where rock layers have been lost due to erosion.
Rocks are tilted from the original horizontal position.
The bending of rock layers due to stress in the Earth's crust
The rising of regions of the Earth's crust to higher elevations.
A piece of an older rock that becomes part of a new rock.
Magma cutting through formed layers of sedimentary rock that then cools and hardens.