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ISSN Study Guide Part 2
Terms in this set (81)
What are the effects of caffeine on metabolism?
Stimulates EPI release → Glycogen sparing through lipolysis → delays sensation of fatigue
What type of cyanobacterium improves fat oxidation?
Know the effects of creatine supplementation.
Increases intramuscular creatine levels by up to 25% after loading. Creatine is used for high force production (P-Cr energy system) increased energy production
Which amino acid, together with insulin, allows protein synthesis to be coordinated with dietary intake?
Which 3 sources supply the body's primary needs for water?
Beverages 60%, Foods 30%, Metabolic Water (produced by cellular metabolism) 10%
What is the best post-workout meal if the goal is promoting skeletal muscle hypertrophy?
1.2-2.0 g/kg BW and >_ 44-50 kcal/kg BW Whey protein with 3-4 g leucine + fast-acting carbohydrate source (maltodextrin or glucose)
Any substance, medical aid, or training method that improves sport performance.
Releases energy, available to do work
Energy inward, energy must be supplied
Know factors determining total daily energy expenditure.
Resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of food, activity throughout the day
Energy needed to maintain body function at rest
Thermic effect of food
Energy required to bread down and process food
Activity through day
Any movement including workouts
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA)
Meets needs for 97.5% of a healthy population.
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
Used for nutrient recommendations encompasses AI, EAR, RDA and UL.
Reference Daily Intake (RDI)
Set of dietary references for vitamins and minerals on food labels based on 1968 RDA's.
Estimated Safe and Accurate Daily Dietary Intake (ESADDI)
Recommended intake range of nutrients where there is not enough information available to establish RDA.
Which compound has been shown to increase fat loss independently of anything?
What is the recommended intake of water prior to exercising in heat?
4hrs prior: 5-7ml/kg BW, 1-2hrs prior: 3-5ml/kg BW, 10-20 min prior: ~1cup
What are the effects of carbohydrate consumption during exercise?
Can improve endurance capacity and performance. Maintains blood glucose and high levels of glucose oxidation. Glycogen sparing
What minerals may be depleted as a result of sweating?
Sodium, chloride, magnesium, and potassium.
What is the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis?
Know the effects of (excessive) sweating during exercise.
% Body Weight Loss in sweat , 3% loss = decreased in blood volume, 4% = nausea and slowing of work. Decrease in performance can start at 3% loss.
Know the effects of caffeine supplementation.
Delays sensation of fatigue and increases alertness.
What influences the amount of water loss during exercise?
Environmental conditions: hot and humid, Clothing, Exercise intensity , Training level: more trained = sweat more and sooner, Acclimation.
What is the main fuel source during light to moderate exercise?
What is a vitamin megadose and how does it relate to RDA.
Some vitamins are toxic when taken in high amounts (megadose). Several times the RDA is considered a megadose.
What are the effects of a decrease in intramuscular pH secondary to intense anaerobic exercise? What is the primary fate of lactate?
Phosphate build up; can be used as energy in the cell or sent to liver for gluconeogenesis
What is plasma homocysteine levels a marker of?
High levels: marker of endothelial dysfunction, increased risk of CVD.
What are the effects of Vitamin D on cardiovascular health?
Deficiency may increase risk of CVD.
What are anabolic hormones with respect to skeletal muscle?
Hormones that promote protein synthesis.
Know the effects of polymerized vs. concentrated glucose solution effects.
Polymerized is lower glycemic index, not good for training.
Know how amino acids are used for energy. Under what conditions are intramuscular amino acids degraded for energy use?
Amino acids enter the amino acid pool and are used for various purposes. Intramuscular AA's are used for energy when other energy sources are low.
What are the effects of glycogen storage on body mass? That is, how much water is stored with glycogen (gram for gram)?
3 grams of water with each gram of glycogen
Know the effects of exercise on weight loss according to epidemiological research.
What is considered dehydration as it relates to percent change in body weight?
What are the metabolic effects of vanadyl sulfate?
May help with management of type II diabetes; used to increase muscle hypertrophy, enhance recovery and endurance performance.
The body is unable to oxidize the nitrogen component of which macromolecule?
How does low-glycemic carbohydrate intake affect the body during exercise?
Preexercise meals with a low GI may be best for athletes. When comparing trained cyclist who had either a high GI or low GI meal prior to a 2 hour cycling bout and exercise to exhaustion, the low GI group had higher glucose levels at 120 minutes and cycled significantly longer in the exhaustion test. More research is needed.
Understand oxidative stress and free radicals.
When we exercise free radicals are produced which can be harmful to the body, as they are looking for free electrons. Vitamins A, C and E can donate electrons to these free radicals because of their antioxidant capabilities.
What are the contributors to the anti-oxidant capacity of blood?
What supplementation improves buffering capacity of skeletal muscle?
Beta alanine, Sodium Bicarbonate
Know trace minerals and general functions.
Zinc(immune), iron (heme), molybedium (metabolic cofactor), selenium (cell membranes), iodine(thyroid), manganese(metabolism, hormone synthesis, superoxide dismutase), copper (metabolism)
Know the ergogenic effects of creatine.
Increase stamina, recovery in between sets, peak power
What is HMB? Effects on LBM?
Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate; no effect on trained subjects, may increase lbm in elderly and untrained.
The intake of which vitamins, below RDA, can result in physical performance impairment?
What are the effects of pre-exercise bicarbonate loading?
Enhanced buffering capacity
The % Daily Value is calculated based on what kcal diet?
What are the effects of losing weight through diet alone?
Atrophy- muscle loss. Diet and exercise helps preserve FFM. RMR can decrease with diet alone.
What is complete cessation of the menstrual cycle called?
Understand the benefits in the timing for EAA ingestion as it relates to exercise.
Know the General roles of Calcium, Potassium and Sodium
Sodium and Potassium - Nerve transmission, major electrolyte, muscle contraction and blood pressure regulator. Calcium - bone health, muscle contractions, nerve transmission and blood clotting (fibrin).
Which vitamins play a major role in bodys metabolism?
What effects does high blood Glucose have on the beta cells of the pancreas?
Causes the excretion of insulin
What serves as the predominant energy source for the body as the exercise intensity inceases and which part of the body is it stored?
Glycogen, Muscles and Liver
What are ketones? how are they produced?
Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting) or carbohydrate restriction for cells of the body to use as energy instead of glucose. Production = ketogenesis
RER for CHO, Fats and PRO.
<.7 = Fats, ~ .85 = Fats and CHOs, > 1.0 = CHOs, RER usually doesn't account for PRO, but respiratory quotient does.
Function of Glutamine?
Placebo-controlled vs Double-blind
Double Blind: subjects and researchers do not know which intervention is placebo or treatment Placebo-controlled: In a study, the experimental group receives the treatment and the control group receives placebo
What are the effects of oat bran on muscle gylcogen?
When taken post-exercise, oat bran has the ability to replenish muscle and liver glycogen stores. May increase time to exhaustion (shown in rats).
What is the function of cholesterol?
Performs three main functions: It helps make the outer coating of cells. It makes up the bile acids that work to digest food in the intestine. It allows the body to make Vitamin D and hormones, like estrogen in women and testosterone in men.
Function of alpha-hydroxy-isocaproic acid supplementation?
There is evidence of a direct in vitro inhibitory effect of HICA on various matrix metalloproteinase enzymes, which are responsible for degradation of various connective and protein tissue
Sources of unsaturated fats? Nuts Vegetable oils Canola oil Olive oil High oleic safflower oil Sunflower oil Avocado.
Sources of saturated fats? fatty beef, lamb, pork, poultry with skin, beef fat (tallow), lard and cream, butter, cheese and other dairy products made from whole or reduced-fat (2 percent) milk.
Eating disorder, Amenorrhea, osteoporosis
Differentiate between: Amylose, Amylopetin, cellulose, and hemicellose
Amylose = slow digesting, amylopectin = fast digesting. Both are starch. Cellulose and hemicelluose are fiber, cellulose is more crystalline and structured while hemi is more random
what prepares fatty acid for the Krebs cycle?
What population sees the greatest effect from beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation?
Sedentary and elderly
Which skeletal muscle protein determines the contractility?
What are the effects of caffeine?
It is stimulant (nutritional ergogenic aid), beside alertness, caffeine enhanced endurance performance by increasing the release of adrenaline into the blood stimulating the release of free fatty acids from fat tissue and/or skeletal muscle, and may influence on glycogen resynthesis or spar the muscle glycogen For short-term exercise: performance improvement may be a direct positive effect of caffeine on muscle anaerobic energy provision and contraction or a central nervous component related to the sensation of effort.
How much protein should athletes consume after an intense training regimen?
0.5g/kg body mass weight (was this suppose grams? we talked about 3:1, and 20g post workout).
Supplementation with glutamine and phosphatidylserine is used to counteract the effects of which catabolic hormone?
Increased insulin sensitivity and improved glucose metabolism are benefits of what supplement?
What is the primary active ingredient of Bitter Orange or Citrus Aurantium?
What is the required dose for beta-alanine (to achieve an ergogenic effect)?
Which buffer is responsible for regulating the acid-base balance in the kidneys and the intracellular fluids?
What happens during the first few weeks of resistance training, when accompanied by creatine supplementation?
Body weight gain (from water), then muscle gain.
What is the type of fatty acid that contains two or more double bonds along the main carbon chain?
What are the effects of protein together with exercise?
Exercise alone will increase protein synthesis, but combining PRO and exercise will increase protein synthesis upto 250% in 24 hours.
What are the effects of quercetin on exercise?
Theoretically, It improve human endurance exercise capacity
What is EGCG?
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate - green tea component that aids lipolysis by inhibiting o-methyltransferase which breaks down norepinephrine
This set is often in folders with...
ISSN Study Guide Part 1
CISSN Exam Review
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