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Final Review: 2018
Terms in this set (46)
What was life like during the Paleolithic Age?
-social & gender equality
How did the Neolithic Age differ from the Paleolithic Age?
-no more gender equality
What were the four river valley civilizations and where was each located? (know where they are and what river they are associated with)
-Mesopotamia—> Tigris & Euphrates (Middle East/Iraq)
-Ancient Egypt —> Nile (Egypt)
-Indus valley—> Indus River(India)
-Ancient China—> Huang He(China)
Why did early civilizations begin around river valleys?
Source of life (agriculture, food, travel, etc. )
What was the Code of Hammurabi? What other law codes have we studied and how are they all similar?
1) Code of Hammurabi- Written set of laws used in ancient Mesopotamia. It is known for its harsh punishment of crimes (i.e.- "an eye for an eye").
Similar laws are Twelve Tables of Rome(Written set of laws used in Roman Empire. Laws favored the wealthy.)Justinian Code-(Written set of laws used in the Byzantine Empire. It was based on old Roman laws and was later adopted by many countries in Europe.)
They are all standardized (written) sets of laws.They each concern the relationship between the state (government) and the individual. They were biased. They all helped create stability (a calm and orderly society) since people were able to learn what the laws were.
5 Pillars of Islam( faith(creed), prayer, fasting, pilgrimage (to Meca) & almsgiving. Submission to the will of Allah(god). 1 god
A religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus. 1 god
A religion based on the teachings of the Buddha. Enlightenment (when a Buddhist finds the truth about life and stops being reborn because he has reach Nirvana and once you get to Nirvana you are not born again). Four noble truths. Reincarnation. dharma 4 karma. Polytheistic
Rigid Caste system (no social mobility). Reincarnation. Follow dharma (rules) , get good karma( a sum of all your deeds in life), move a varna(social class). Polytheistic
What is Confucianism? Know: filial piety, ancestor worship, Five Relationships, The Analects and civil service examinations
Confucianism - Moral conduct and ethical living and is often categorized as an ethical system, rather than a religion. Emphasis on earthly not heavenly.
1. Filial Piety - Respect shown by children for their parents and elders
2. Ancestor worship - religious practice of honoring the spirits of the dead
3. Five Relationships -
- ruler to subject
- father to son
- older sibling to younger sibling
- husband to wife
- friend to friend
4. Analects - The collection of Confucius' thoughts and sayings.
5. Civil Service Examinations -The practice of hiring government workers on the basis of open, competitive examinations and merit
How is Legalism and Daoism different?
Legalism - Believe people are born morally corrupt. People only do the right thing if there is either a promise of reward or fear of punishment.
Daoism - Self-development, meditation, and following the "way" of nature.
Why did the Qin Dynasty adopt a Legalism policy?
They believed that humans are evil and that harsh punishments are needed to keep order in society
What attitude did early Chinese civilizations adopt towards other cultures? Why?
What trade network connected China to other civilizations?
The Silk Road was a long trade route that extended about 4,000 miles from China in the
East to the Mediterranean Sea in the West. The Silk Road connected the different
What caused the Dark Ages?
Christianity played a part but it was mostly the constant raids and attacks which lead to the Dark Ages.
What is feudalism?
Giving land in exchange for loyalty, military support, and other services
Who had the most power during the Middle Ages?
What caused the Crusades?
Christian pilgrims were being killed when they visited the Holy Lands by Muslims.
What were the effects of the Crusades?
Some effects of the Crusades were increase of wealth, education, and the arts. People started leaving the manors and moving into cities. And the power of the king increased as the power of the church and nobles decreased.
How was feudalism in Europe similar to feudalism in Japan?
They were similar because the nobles were high on top probably followed by the army (knights or samurai's) because the army was very important
Who had the most power in the Japanese feudalism system?
What caused the Renaissance?
What is humanism?
A philosophical understanding of the power of one individual human, and the enhancement of that power through collective work.
What caused the Reformation? (Know: Martin Luther, 95 Theses, sale of indulgences, Calvin, Henry VII)
The sale of indulgences from the church. Martin Luther wrote the 95 theses against the churches actions.
What impact did the Reformation have on Europe?
Parliament was recognized as a partner in governing along with William and Mary. England had become a constitutional monarchy, where laws limited the ruler's power. A Bill of Rights was drafted in 1689 that made clear the limits of royal power.
What invention helped to spread Renaissance & Reformation ideas? Where did this first develop?
The printing press crated by Martin Luther when he was angry with the church
Why did a gold-salt trade develop across the Sahara Desert?
What "technology" developed that allowed for the Trans-Saharan trade to take place?
Why did Ghana, Mali, and Songhai develop in West Africa?
The gold-salt trade allowed the pm to develop.
Who was Mansa Musa? What religion did he practice? What impact did this have on Mali?
Describe the geography of the Inca, Aztec and Maya
How did each overcome their geography to build civilizations?
Aztecs - They established their capital of Tenochtilán. Aztecs used conquests and alliances to build a huge empire. Their capital grew into a magnificent city with temples, palaces, gardens and zoos
Inca - The Inca's utilized their mountainous surrounding to maximize the efficiency of their agriculture and irrigation systems as well as a system of roads.
Maya - By developing a complex agricultural society, which included maize, beans and squash. They accumulated much wealth from a profitable trade system.
What led to the decline and fall of each civilization?
What caused Europeans to explore in the 1400s?
Trade routes. Seeking a greater share of the rich Asian spice trade.
What technology helped Europeans to explore?
In the 1400's, shipbuilders designed a new vessel, the caravel. It was sturdier than earlier vessels. Triangular sails adopted from the Arabs allowed it to sail effectively against the wind. Navigational techniques were also improved. To better determine their location at sea, sailors used the astrolabe, a brass circle with carefully adjusted rings marked off in degrees. Using the rings to sight the stars, a sea captain could calculate latitude. Explorers were also able to accurately track direction by using a magnetic compass.
What were the social, political, and economic effects of exploration?
Economic-commercialism(capitalism). Mercantilism(triangular trade).
What was the encomienda system? How was it similar to feudalism?
What led to the end of the encomienda system?
What was a result of the end of the encomienda system?
They needed more slaves to they took people from Africa
Define: Commercial Revolution, capitalism, mercantilism, joint-stock company, Triangular Trade, The middle Passage
Commercial : major changes Capitalism : economic theory in which supply and demand determine
What are the characteristics of an absolute monarch?
1. one person rules
2. ruler rules until his death
3. power is passed on through bloodline
4. the ruler has COMPLETE control over everyone in the country
How did the power of kings change from the Middle Ages through the Age of Absolutism?
In the Middle Ages, the power of kings had been limited by nobles, parliaments, and the Catholic Church.
In Europe the kings were soon to become absolute monarchs with a much greater power over the nobles and the common people.
What is Divine Right?
The idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on Earth.
What are symbols of power for: King Louis XIV of France, Czar Peter the Great of Russia?
King Louis XIV of France - "Sun-king". Vesalli
Czar Peter the Great of Russia -st. Petersburg. Westernized.
Who is John Locke?
Enlightenment writer who believed in Natural Rights
How was the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment similar?
Scientific revolution: scientific method
Enlightenment: political and religious questioning. Movement away from absolution.
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