49 terms

Unit 2 Revolutions and Enlightenment

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voltaire
a French Enlightenment writer and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties. He believed strongly in freedom of expression.
John Locke
an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers, widely known as the Father of Liberalism.
Simon Bolivar
Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule. He supported ideas of freedom and human rights.
Thomas Jefferson
US president who believed that men have inalienable rights, which government cannot abuse. All men are created equal.
Montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers; checks and balances!
Isaac Newton
Defined the laws of motion and gravity. Tried to explain motion of the universe.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a direct non-representative democracy
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade.
Thomas Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings.
Magna Carta
Magna Carta was forced upon King John; the King is subject to law; granted rights to all free men; eventually absorbed into common law. It was the first document that limited the power of the government.
English Bill of Rights
reaffirmed the Magna Carta and added new freedoms; Guaranteed rights of property owners to self-government • Gave Parliament financial authority over government • Protestants could worship • Anglican Church was official church.
Elizabethan England
A golden age in England, time of prosperity; named after Queen Elizabeth... 16th - 17th century in England.
Oliver Cromwell
As Lord Protector of England he used his army to control the government which became a military dictatorship.
English Civil War
This was the revolution; the loyalists supported the king Oliver Cromwell was supported by the puritans. Eventually, the kingship was abolished.
Stuart Family
Took over the throne because Queen Elizabeth I (Virgin Queen) had no heir.
Tudor Family
ruling family of england. , Henry established this which runs to present day and is represented by a genetically altered rose
1st Estate
consisted of clergy and about 130,000 people. They owned about 10% of the land. They were exempt from taxes. They were radically divided.
2nd Estate
the nobility, about 350,000 people. Noble owned about 25-30% of land. They held many of the leading positions in the government, the military, the law courts, and the higher church offices. Exempt from taxes.
3rd Estate
the name of the group of the lowest class in France who paid almost all the taxes
King Louis XIV
King of France, built the palace of Versailles, absolute monarch
King Louis XVI
absolute monarch of France at the start of the French Revolution. He was executed by guillotine.
Marie Antoinette
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular; her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband.
Feudalism
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; system in which poor people are legally bound to work for wealthy landowners
Economic troubles of France
France spent more $$$ than it took in (deficit spending) because: Fought wars against England; had to borrow $$$ to support war; luxurious lifestyle of the King & Queen; The Nobility refused to be taxed!
Palace of Versaille
Built by King Louis XIV, symbol of waste and arrogance when people were starving to death.
Deficite spending
France spent more $$$ than it took in.
Meeting of the Estates General
Meeting to solve France's $ problems; Called together representatives from each estate.
Voting system of Estates General
was set up for the nobility & clergy to out vote the peasants
tennis court oath
This is the oath that the representatives of the third estate took when they swore that they would never disband until they had proper representation
The National Assembly
In June 1789 the 3rd estate, joined by some of the clergy and nobility, began the Revolution by defying the king and declaring itself The National Assembly.
Veto
a vote that blocks a decision
storming the Bastille
100's of people march to the Bastille to arm themselves (it has ammo.) •The commander of the fort wouldn't give it to the crowd & fired upon the crowd (98 dead) •Crowd swarms the fort & take the Bastille •Word spreads throughout France -Peasants rise against nobles everywhere
The Great Fear
In these desperate times rumors ran about the "Great Fear." Stories of attacks on villages and towns spread panic. Inflamed by fear the peasants unleashed their fury on nobles trying to reimpose medieval dues.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Women's march on Versailles
Hundreds of women marched on Versailles to get equal rights on 5 October 1789; also known as the Bread Riot
The enlightenment
The European political philosophers whose writings influenced the concepts of liberty and government contained in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution belonged to the intellectual and cultural movement known as
National Convention
The third estate of the Estates General -broke away from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
Robespierre
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
The Guillotine
instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles; "more humane" method promoted by Parisian doctor after whom it was named
The Reign Of Terror
Robespierre led the Committee of Public Safety, in turn, lead National Convention -He set up a court system with himself as judge -Citizens tried for treason -40,000 French people beheaded for treason -Lasted 1 year -Robespierre himself was beheaded
Congress of Vienna
an international conference (1814-15) held at Vienna after Napoleon's banishment to Elba, aimed at territorial resettlement and restoration to power of the crowned heads of Europe.
Governmental Changes
Absolute Monarchy (King Louis XIV); Constitutional Monarchy (National Asembly); Republic (the National Convention); Dictator (Robespierre); The Directory; emperor for life
The Directory
5 men ruled from 1775-1799; elected by males; not very effective.
Coup de tat
a sudden overthrow of government
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Napoleonic code
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that said •All French men were treated as equals •Feudalism and class privileges were abolished •Freedom of religion •Property rights Protected •Created order & stability in FR. •Restored the economy
Russian Campaign
Napoleon tried to add Russia to his empire; had a huge army and moved into Russia in September. Russians used the scorched earth policy; Russia retreated and lured them deeper in and burnt everything in their path
Battle of Waterloo
This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler
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