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7) Constitutionalism and Absolutism
Terms in this set (74)
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
New Act of Supremacy
Elizabeth appoints herself as governor of Church of England
Brought the Reformation to England(Anglican Church), did not recognized Mary and Elizabeth as legitimate heirs, instead Edward is
ascends to the throne at age 10. Uncle Seymour serves as his Lord Protector, follows protestant ideas of Seymour. Has a good relationship with Elizabeth but not Mary. Dies at 16 never fully becoming king. Seymour still wants power after he dies but Edward names Jane Grey has heir
Lady Jane Grey
Cousin of Edward, Elizabeth, and Mary who is queen for 9 days. Her husband Lord Dudley underestimates Mary's power/support who marches an army into London and puts Jane Grey in Tower of London
Mary came to throne determined to return England to Catholicism(princess life was taken away from her young and defied Henry VIII's policies), persecuted and killed 300 Protestants. Not very good relationship with Elizabeth, marries Phillip II of Spain(first cousin) which is an unpopular decision
Queen of england ruling for 44 years, supported middle way for religion in Anglican church. Never married. Had rivalry with Spain. Had financial problems but also led London to becoming a powerhouse
Act of Uniformity
Elizabethan Act that preserved the Anglican's Protestant identity. It said that everyone had to attend Anglican service and use the Book of Common Prayer.
Suitors of Elizabeth
Phillip II of Spain(brother in law), Robert Dudley(court favorite), Francis Valois of France(eh Catholic)
Mary Queen of Scots
Elizabeth has no heir to Mary wants to fill the position but she is Catholic. Gives birth to James I and is forced to renounce Scottish throne after marrying husbands killer. Escapes to England for protection but is killed by Elizabeth who sees her as a threat.
The Middle Way
The agreements that were made between protestants and catholics of the Anglican church. Elizabeth became the supreme governor of the Anglican church. Protestants were allowed to worship in English and use the Protestant doctrine under Edward. For Catholics, decorations and luxuries were allowed in the church so long as the prayer book meanings were left ambiguous.
Sir Francis Drake
Knighted by Elizabeth for efforts in pillaging Spanish ships coming from Spanish colonies in the Americas
Spain's large fleet of ships. Phillip II invades England because sees England as threat to Catholicism plus they are pirating Spanish ships. England's smaller but more mobile and faster fleet defeat the bulkier Spanish ships. Increases nationalism at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign
Pope Pius V
Pope that excommunicated Elizabeth and said no Catholics in England have to obey her as a religious authority
King James Bible
King James authorized a new version of the Bible to be written by scholars in 1611
Inherited a lot of debt, several bad harvests, small annual gov funds, economic depression. Solutions: sell state land, emphasize self-sufficiency, joint stock companies, colonies, be frugal. Economy still not stable at end of reign
Rule by divine right and popular consent, middle way religious approach, cultural golden age, avoided important issues
James in Scotland
Has regent as child with power plays between nobles. Ends his regency when he escapes kidnapping and starts his absolute rule. Secures his position with Elizabeth as heir. Believed in divine right and protestant church of scotland
James in England
Intellectual king that makes peace with Spain and France. Elizabeth left him budget, religious, and parliament problems. Parliament wants more of a say and no one like middle way anymore. James also very hard to compromise with
The period of the rule of Queen Elizabeth I in England, from 1558 to 1603.
Renaissance in England, Shakespeare, colonies in Americas, London becomes powerhouse city
James vs. Parliament
James wants to be all poweful monarch and using Parliament makes him look weak, divine right, middle way religion. Parliament wants more of a say in kings actions and wants to cleanse Anglican church of catholic influences. James dissolved Parliament
Petition of Right
Charles I reinstates Parliament after James I dissolved it. Limits power of the king but later dissolved by Charles. The king may not: Imprison people without cause, No taxation without representation, No quartering troops in houses, No martial law in peacetime.
Seen as a distant king(brother was cooler), married French Catholic woman, sometimes viewed as a secret Catholic. Appoints Archbishop Laud who likes Catholic rituals. Reinstates a Parliament full of Puritans. Will defend cavaliers in English civil war and will lose and be executed.
English calvinsits that controlled much of the Parliament during the time of Charles I. Many moved to the Americas but also started the fight against the monarchy
Charles I vs. Parliament
Charles wants to raise an army to fight Scottish rebels. Parliament says no and is dissolved. Called again the next yea(Long Parliament) and passes Triennial Act where they can't be dissolved without their own consent. War between Parliament and king begins.
New Model Army
forced assembled by Parliament and lead by Oliver Cromwell in the English Civil War
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War. Served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth and later military dictator.
supporters of the king in the English Civil War. Also called royalists
Supporters of Parliament in the English Civil War
1649-1660 when Parliament takes over and is lead by a Lord Protector(Oliver Cromwell and Richard Cromwell)
Cromwell's new government that he runs where there is no king-a republic with no monarch and no House of Lords. lead by Cromwell.
This was the Parliament after Oliver Cromwell dismissed the any supporters of the king in Parliament. All supporters of the rebels and order Charles I to be executed
The period of Cromwell's rule, the army controlled the government and Cromwell controlled the army. Cromwell could not work with Rump Parliament so he destroyed it.
After Cromwell died, his army realized the republic and military gov was unpopular so they restored the monarchy in 1660. Charles II, son of Charles I became king. Parliament still held a lot of power it had won in the war
Merry Monarch who reinstates art, theater, music/lit, science. Luxurious life and partying. He was sympathetic to Catholicism and people worried because his brother(heir) James II was an open Catholic. Loses power to Parliament over time.
Charles II secret deal with France
Charles II agreed to eventually become Catholic(he did on his deathbed) and support France against Dutch in exchange for a yearly pension.
Habeas Corpus Act
Legal right protecting individuals from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment. Limited the power of the king
Conservative party in Parliament who supported James II taking the throne. "Paptist Outlaws"
Liberal party in Parliament that Opposed James II taking the throne
Catholic and tolerant of Catholics in England. Allowed them to take office be in military, court, etc. Believed in divine right. In first marriage gets two Protestant daughters and then gets a Protestant son in second marriage who becomes heir.
William of Orange
Married to Mary, James II protestant daughter, who Parliament asks to invade England and overthrow James II.
Bloodless Revolution where Parliament decides it does not want a line of Catholic monarchs after James II. They invite William III, Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic and married to Jame's eldest daughter mary to invade England. When he arrives, the nobles defect to William and James II flees. Parliament makes William and Mary joint monarchs
English Bill of Rights
Document written by John Locke that William and Mary were forced to sign at their coronation. List of Parliament's demands to make the country a constitutional monarchy. Parliament would be able to make laws, levy taxes, and make the monarch rely on Parliament to do anything
An agreement between the people and their government signifying their consent to be governed not coming out of warfare
Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Believed state of nature blends freedom and human reason. Individuals form a social contract. People have natural rights, the government is made of the people, revolution is justified if government fails. Experienced the Glorious Revolution.
Wrote the Leviathan. State of nature was nasty, brutish, and short. Leaders should be given absolute power to prevent chaos. People should never be trusted. Everyone has the equal right to exist and kill each other. People do not have the right to rebel bc all authority is held by the leviathan. Experienced the English Civil War
Life, Liberty, and Property as said by John Locke
Held power during the reign of Lous XIII. Was for taking power away from Huguenots and spreading Catholicism. Wanted to increase power of the monarchy and make France a powerful nation
Continues Richelieu's policies after his death into his position as chief minister for Louis XIV
French nobles and Parisian townspeople rebel against Cardinal Mazarin, very traumatic Louis XIV and started his hatred of Paris
Louis XIV childhood
Known as the God-given child after his parents failed to produce a male heir after 23 years of marriage. Grows hatred for Paris in childhood during the Frondes where soldiers burst into his palace. Later reason for building Versailles
Louis as One King
controlled nobles by making them fight each other and do menial tasks. Created robe nobles who could buy their position. replaced high ranking members of High Council with ones he felt were only most loyal. Never calls estates general
Louis with One Law
Code Louis- standardized French law instead of individual noble law. All laws must be personally approved by king
Louis with One Religion
Made France entirely Catholic kicking out Huguenots. Was for Gallicansim
Edict of Fountainbleau
Revoked the Edict of Nantes that destroyed Huguenot churches and schools forcing them to flee to protestant accepting countries(England, Germany, netherlands)
idea that the pope should have no presence in political affairs only spiritual ones.
Economic Czar of France. Used Mercantilism to export more than import, reform taxes, create new industry, protect industries
encouraging state intervention and protectionsim
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and used as a gilded cage to keep his nobles under his watch and maintain his absolute rule
Export/Imports for France
France's Mercantilist plan under Louis XIV included increasing exports and French made goods(boosted industry) while decreasing imports
Colbert issued tariffs in France to help fund Louis' activities like building Versailles
Colbert issued subsidies to protect inventors and industry in France
Academie des Sciences
Established by Colbert to formalize scientific meetings under gov. Wants France to be capital of invention and innovation. Forefront of development in 17th and 18th centuries
Louis XIV Wars
Gets in 4 wars. Other nations form alliances bc nervous of France. Louis spends a lot of money on war
Louis XIV Legacy
poverty and hunger in common people, establishes France as a power, other rulers try to imitate Louis
Peter the Great childhood
Rebellions from nobles in his childhood made him suspicious of boyars. Spent first part of reign sharing tsar title with half brother Ivan because of father's many wives
Peter the Great
Russian Tsar with an obsession for West and its culture(Tok two trips to Western Europe). Loved sailing, math, science. First Goal was to Westernize Russia bringing trimmed bears, dress, manners, calendar, technology, food to Russia while also reducing power of the boyars. Second Goal was to find a warm water port. Takes black sea from Sweden. Founds St. Petersburg on baltic sea as new russian capital. These things made the czar a new threat especially with new expanded military power
Russian nobles whose power was reduced during the reign of Peter the Great. Rebellions from nobles in his childhood made him suspicious of boyars
Eastern church originally founded in Constantinople and later moved to Moscow. Very religious Russia and its church were not supportive of Peter's foreign influences and westernization
New capital of Russia built by Peter the Great and served as a port for the navy; often called "Window on the West." Classic ubran power with more state buildings than religious buildings
Russian national legislature of boyars(russian nobles)
Battle of Poltava
Decisive battle in the Great Northern War between Peter and Sweden where russia gains access to the Black Sea
A ruling power not challenged or checked by an judicial, legislative, religious, economic, or electoral power.
Basic principle that government and those who govern for example a monarch must obey the law
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