demeo final exam (morality/10 commandments)
Terms in this set (146)
Morality based on facts, logic, reason. What really is moral/immoral
This philosophy says that all morality depends on the situation
This philosophy equates morality with blind obedience to the law or authority
The study of right and wrong based on revelation, facts, logic, and never on feelings
My interpretation of how the objective facts of morality apply in a specific situation
The term in morality for legalism
This philosophy states that whatever feels or is natural or normal is moral
"it's only natural"
The pleasure or "playboy" philosophy
Actions which are good and right in themselves, therefore we should do them
Actions which are neither right nor wrong in themselves; they are morally neutral
Actions which are bad or wrong in themselves. We should never do them
Actions which are not immoral but are not required
Blind acceptance of fads, styles, customs
How do immoral actions become sins?
When we know the actions are immoral and freely choose to do them
When can eating be immoral?
When a person overeats because he/she has no self-control
When is taking drugs moral?
When they're used as medicine when you're sick
What is drug abuse?
Any drug not used as medicine
What is alcohol abuse?
Getting drunk; drinking too much
Hedonism is an immoral philosophy because
It equates morality based on feelings with no objective standards
Hedonists tend to be impulsive. Explain.
They live for the present (now), so whatever catches their eyes at that very moment is what they want, and it becomes a destructive routine
Why is situation ethics immoral?
Logic tells us that some actions are always either moral or immoral, regardless of the situation
Legalism is sometimes called the "military philosophy." Explain.
It emphasizes "blind obedience" to the law and authority and orders, which is almost exactly how the military operates
For a legalist, moral equals ___________ and immoral equals ____________
"It's only natural" is immoral because
It's totally subjective based on feelings and instincts
If a person follows the "it's only natural" philosophy, that person must be willing to accept in others....
As good or moral any behaviors or actions which others believe are natural and normal
Judges accurately what is moral and immoral
Subjectively sure that my decision is correct
The practical judgment of the morality of an action
Neurotic guilt. Sees everything as seriously immoral
Judges too lightly what is immoral
Subjectively not sure my decisions are correct
Judges too harshly what is immoral
Judges incorrectly what is moral and immoral
Can't make a decision because can't accept the consequences of the decision
Why is fear an immature or bad motive for choosing to do the right thing?
It's based on fear of consequences and punishment
Person-centered is a good motive for choosing to do the right thing but it is not the best because
It can lead to "majority rules" morality, or peer pressure morality, which is not good
Why is the Christian motive the best way to make decisions?
It's based on objective standards, which are always correct
By itself, a correct conscience is inadequate. Why?
Knowing does not equal doing (what's moral or immoral)
Why must we always follow a certain conscience?
We must be sure what we're doing is correct, even if the action is bad
Why must we never follow a doubtful conscience?
It's always immoral, even if the action is not objectively immoral, because you deliberately choose to do something that might be immoral, so it is immoral
Following a strict conscience is like following "Murphy's Law." Explain.
They are very pessimistic, and they always think whatever bad thing can happen will happen, so they think everything connected is immoral
Strict conscience also follows the "wedge principle." Explain.
They believe that if they let someone do something once, they'll keep asking again and again; if they do something bad once, they'll keep doing it
Someone with a lax conscience sees nothing connected to an immoral action as wrong. Give an example.
Using contraceptive pills after having pre-marital sex
A scrupulous person has a totally negative self-image which colors all decisions about morality. Explain.
They feel bad or responsible for anything bad that happens, and they cannot accept forgiveness even in confession, or they can't forgive themselves
The goal of forming conscience is to have a _____________, ____________, ______________ conscience
certain, correct, Christian
The main slogan we should follow in forming conscience is
What Would Jesus Do
In forming conscience we should be honest with ourselves. Explain.
We should ask ourselves if our real values/motives/goals enhance us as people, or dehumanize us; if they dehumanize, then justify it
The 3 steps to being informed as opposed to ignorance are:
1) What are the latest teachings of the Church on this situation?
2) What is the opinion of reputable theologians?
3) Always stay updated on the information, even after finishing school; continue to educate yourself
What is the definition of sin?
A thought, word, or action which harms (venial), or breaks (mortal) our friendship with God
When do bad thoughts become sins?
When they're deliberate and immoral (fantasies or plans)
How do people sin in their words?
When they deliberately disrespect, or use cursing, or profane language
The focus of sin is not so much on breaking commandments or rules but on
Harming or breaking friendship with God
How is every sin a form of selfishness?
It is choosing self over God, a violation of 1st commandment
How is a mistake different from a sin?
You didn't know subjectively what you were doing was wrong, as opposed to subjectively knowing what you did wrong
Ignorance can increase or decrease the seriousness of a sin or can create sin from nothing. How?
Increase: person believes immoral action is more serious than it really is
Decrease: person believes immoral action is less serious than it really is
Create from nothing: person believes the action is a sin when objectively it is not
How can passions/emotions lessen the seriousness of or remove a sin?
If you lost total control as an immediate reaction to something that happened
Why is deliberately putting ourselves in a situation where we might lose control of passions/emotions a sin even if nothing happens?
Deliberately risking committing a sin is committing a sin
Being physically forced to do an immoral action is never a sin, even if it causes pleasure unless
The person deliberately puts self in the position to be forced
Why is it immoral for someone in our day and age to begin smoking?
Unlike in the older days, people now know the dangers of smoking, so they shouldn't do it if they know they'll become addicted to it
If a person can't control an immoral habit, compulsion or addiction, the REAL SIN for this person would be
To do nothing about it, as in getting help
What is the definition of mortal sin?
A sin that completely breaks our friendship with God
What did Jesus say to the apostles on Easter Sunday letting us know that mortal sin must be forgiven through the Sacrament of Reconciliation?
"If you forgive peoples' sins, they are forgiven, and if you don't forgive peoples' sins, they are not forgiven"
What is the definition of venial sin?
A sin that harms our friendship with God but doesn't break it
How can venial sin be forgiven?
In Reconciliation, in the Act of Contrition, and by doing corporal or spiritual works of mercy for someone
Sins against the first commandment means
Putting self/anyone or anything before God, and making choices that contradict God's will
Worshipping false gods is the sin of ______________ and an example of an American "idol" would be ______________
Why are superstitious beliefs a form of idolatry?
It's believing that objects or creatures have power that only God has
Most false/incorrect worship is based on ____________ and results from a person's _____________ stemming from incorrect ________________
ignorance, spirituality, theology
What is meant by a sacramental? Give an example
A holy object that has been blessed (holy water)
The correct purpose/use of sacramentals and holy objects is
Helping us to focus and increase our faith in the presence of Christ, or the intercession of the Blessed Mother and saints
How can the use of sacramentals/holy objects result in miraculous events like healings?
The faith that is generated by the use of the holy object can lead to miraculous events
A person wearing a cross as a fashion accessory alone cannot claim that the cross has no meaning to him/her. Why?
The cross has meaning in and of itself, as it is a universal symbol
Wearing holy objects (or having holy symbols tattooed to the body) while committing sin or living a sinful life is seriously immoral. Explain.
It's a direct contradiction of the holy values they symbolize, and it's asking God to be your witness and partner in sin
What is the Catholic belief concerning the roles of Mary (BVM) and the saints?
They are intercessors when we pray to God through them
If a person claims it is wrong to ask Mary or the saints to intercede for us then logically that person should never ask others for recommendations, favors, etc. Explain.
Asking someone for recommendations or favors is asking others to intercede for you and put in a good word, just like Mary would
Catholics do not pray TO statues of Mary or the saints. What is the purpose of these statues in church?
They are symbols of the people they represent, and stimulate our imaginations with faith
What is the definition of apostasy?
To reject or renounce the Catholic faith, and to lose belief in God
Why is rejecting the Catholic Church to join another a form of apostasy?
It's rejecting Truth in favor of something as incomplete or false
Why are all forms of the occult direct violations of the 1st commandment?
It's directly or indirectly trusting in the power of Satan rather than the power of God
Calling upon supernatural forces to obtain knowledge about the future is the sin of ______________ because it is....
divination, Knowledge that can only come from Satan if given
Ancient Jewish and Christian scholars saw the constellations and the stars as examples of Revelation. Explain.
The images produced by the stars looked a lot like figures from Revelation (dragon, Mary, etc.)
Modern astrology is based on the constellations and stars as fate. Why is this immoral?
It denies free will
Since the souls of the dead cannot be summoned or contact us, the only person who could respond to a summons in a seance is ___________ because his chief title is ______________
Satan, Father of Lies
Why is the possession/use of Ouija boards, crystals, tarot cards immoral?
They are all invitations for Satan to come and cause a person to be obsessed or possessed by him
The whole idea of witchcraft is immoral. It is based on the idea of casting spells which is always immoral because
They force people to do things against their will
Satanism is a choice for hell. Explain.
By rejecting God and worshipping Satan
Buying or selling grace
Simony is named after ________________, who attempted to...
Simon the Magician, Buy grace from the apostles
Televangelists/Faith healers treat religion or faith as a business. Why is this immoral?
They use fraud and deception to prey on peoples' faith for profit
What is the definition of murder?
The direct and deliberate killing of an innocent human being/person
What is the definition of abortion?
The direct and deliberate removal of an unborn child from the womb, causing death to the child, either before, during, or after the removal
Why is abortion considered by the Church to be the worst kind of murder?
The unborn child is totally innocent
If it is not immoral to kill an unwanted pre-born child, then logically what must also be considered not immoral?
Killing any child or adult that is unwanted or inconveniencing
If an exception is accepted to allow abortion in the case of rape, according to this logic what kinds of exceptions must also be excepted?
Allowing the right to murder anyone that causes mental anguish and pain, or killing anyone for a crime his/her father committed
Some argue that abortion is permitted because a woman has the right to do what she wants with her own body. Explain the 2 fallacies of this argument.
Basic biology says that the baby is not a part of the woman's body, and that it is a completely different human being too. It is just as wrong for her to abuse drugs, have body graffiti, etc., as it is to get an abortion (taking care of body)
Some people believe abortion is not murder because the fetus is not really a human being or sub-human. How did the Nazis apply this logic?
They claimed that anyone lacking certain human traits is subhuman and should be killed; this was their whole premise
Some people believe abortion is justified if the mother's health or life is threatened. The premise of this belief states (think of "abandon ship")
Since the mother's health/life is more important than the life of the child, she has more of a right to live, therefore, the baby's life can be "sacrificed" to save the mother
Explain why abortion in the case of saving the mother's life or health is illogical and immoral
If we can decide that the life of one or some are more important than another or others, then in a crisis situation, those whose lives are less important can be killed to save those whose lives are more important
Explain why abortion in the case of saving the mother's life or health is not an example of self-defense
The presence of the unborn child is not a direct attack on the life/health of the mother
If there are medical complications in the pregnant mother, what must doctors try to do?
Save both lives
Some people believe abortion is justified if the child will be born with physical and/or mental disabilities. Extend the logic of this to show why it is immoral.
If we can murder an unborn child to prevent it from suffering, then logically we can kill any person (particularly older people), because death is better than suffering
In the case of abortion being justified if the child will be born with physical/mental disabilities, what is the real reason for the desire for abortion and what are some moral solutions?
The result of fear and anxiety on the part of the parents, so the decision to kill the child prevents the parents from suffering. Moral solutions would be to put the child up for adoption.
In treating a disease like cancer, the fetus' life may be lost. Explain why this is not the same as abortion and is not murder.
The intention is to kill the tumor inside the mother, not to kill the child
Drugs are moral when used according to their __________, which is ___________. In this case they are ____________ means and must be taken when sick.
purpose, medicine, ordinary
Drugs are immoral when they are abused which means used against their ____________ which would be ______________.
purpose, not medicine
When alcohol is drunk as a __________, it is not immoral because it is not abused. Alcohol abuse is treating alcohol as a _________ and the purpose becomes _______________
beverage, drug, immoral because it's abuse
Drug abuse, unlike alcohol abuse, has nothing to do with _____________.
how much/how often you take it
When is deliberately/directly risking life to save another immoral and suicide?
When there is no hope of saving the person, and death to both results
If a person sacrifices life to save another we believe that person goes to heaven because Jesus said
"There's no greater love than to lay down one's life for one's friends"
What is the definition of Euthanasia?
To give a quick, easy, painless death to free or prevent a person from suffering a terminal illness
What is the definition of ordinary means for preserving life/health?
Treatments which lead to control, recovery, or cure of a disease or condition
What is the definition of extraordinary means for preserving life/health?
Usually experimental and expensive treatments that do not lead to control, recovery, or cure; only prolongs a person's life
In a terminal illness we have the right to die a natural death. Explain.
We may refuse any treatment for a terminal illness and allow nature to take its course
How is stopping life support or "pulling the plug" different from Euthanasia which is murder?
The brain is dead, and the body organs are only functioning by a machine; it's not euthanasia
What is the definition of self defense?
To defend yourself, others, or property against an unjust attacker
What is a just attack from which it would be immoral to defend oneself?
Punishment by someone in authority
The motive in self defense must only be to _____________
Stop the attack
Violence/force in self defense can only be used as
The last resort
When is self defense immoral even against an unjust attack? (think of France)
If the attempt to defend yourself will result in serious injury/death
A just war is the same as self defense because the government has the obligation to
Protect itself, its citizens, territories, and allies against an unjust attack
In a just war the enemy may be attacked/killed which would be _____________ but ___________ are not the enemy
Anyone or anything that's making the war possible, civilians
Why are military parades and celebrations immoral?
It's making something evil good
Why is nuclear war immoral in itself?
It cannot be won; it would only result in death and destruction
Most theologians, including the Pope, believe capital punishment is immoral because it does not achieve its purpose as the last resort or prevention to crime. Give an example.
Places that use capital punishment have no less violent crime than places that don't
Besides looking at the purpose of a sport/game, the morality of a sport is determined by what 2 other factors?
How it's played/intention of player(s), and how great the risk of injury/death is
Based on the 3 factors that determine the morality of a sport/game, why is boxing immoral in itself?
Harming the opponent is the purpose; it's a direct risk
Why could watching or supporting boxing be immoral?
It's supporting an immoral activity or industry
Why are daredevil sports not immoral in themselves?
The risk of death is so slight for the trained athletes who do them
What are the 3 moral principles of the 6th commandment?
1) Any sex act outside of marriage is objective mortal sin
2) Any sexual contact outside of marriage is objective mortal sin
3) Any sex act in marriage that does not fulfill the 2 purposes of sexual intercourse is objective mortal sin
The 2 traits of God a husband and wife imitate through sex are:
1) Total love for each other expressed in marriage
2) The creation of new life as the ultimate expression of their total love
Based on Scripture, the Church condemns any sexual activity against the 2 purposes of S.I. as immoral. Explain.
Sexual intercourse is the closest a man and woman in marriage can come to imitating God himself, so any abuses against the 2 purposes are immoral, since sex is so good/perfect (God-like)
Explain how love, commitment and marriage and S.I. are interconnected.
Total love logically must = total commitment, and total commitment between a man and woman logically must = marriage, and S.I. is the expression of the total love and commitment that has been made
Why must a man and woman be married first before they can morally engage in S.I.?
They must first make the commitment (marriage) before the expression of it (S.I.)
We know from the biology of sex that procreation cannot be separated as a purpose of S.I. Explain.
men- have sperm
women- have eggs; both men and women carry the direct possibility of creating a new human life
In itself, pleasure cannot be a purpose for S.I. Explain.
If it was a purpose, any sex act producing pleasure would have to be moral; it contradicts the 2 logical purposes we know are true
Based on the 2 purposes of S.I., explain why each of the following is immoral: foreplay for the unmarried
Purpose is to prepare for S.I.
Based on the 2 purposes of S.I., explain why each of the following is immoral: fornication
No total love or commitment, usually includes contraception, and the reason it's done is for self-pleasure
Based on the 2 purposes of S.I., explain why each of the following is immoral: masturbation
Act of self-pleasure with no possibility of reproduction
Based on the 2 purposes of S.I., explain why each of the following is immoral: homosexual acts
No possibility of reproduction
Based on the 2 purposes of S.I., explain why each of the following is immoral: oral sex
Leads to S.I., there's no possibility of reproduction, and cannot be done as a complete act
Based on the 2 purposes of S.I., explain why each of the following is immoral: contraception
Deliberate/direct/artificial means of preventing conception, which goes against purpose 2
The practice of contraception makes the expression of love or pleasure the most important or the only purpose of S.I. If this is true, then logically what must be true?
We must have S.I. with anything that we love (family, friends, pets, etc.)
Besides degrading sex, the people involved and equating the purpose of sex with pleasure, why is pornography immoral?
It may be an occasion of sin for the user, and the user is supporting an immoral industry which is immoral in itself.
Biological maleness/femaleness is called _________________. How a person identifies self as male/female is called _________________. Sexual attraction for others is called ___________________.
Sexual identity, gender identity, sexual orientation
True or False: BEING homosexual is immoral. If false, then what, if anything is immoral regarding homosexuality?
False; homosexual actions (S.I.)
People who need to stereotype others often reveal more about themselves than those whom they stereotype. Explain.
Their stereotypes are usually based on their insecurities about themselves which are projected out of themselves and onto others as a way to deal with the insecurity without having to face them in him/herself