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34 terms

Medical Terminology 10 (CNS) Part II

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analgesic
agent that relieves pain
anticoagulant
drug that prevents clotting of the blood; commonly used to prevent heart attack and ischemic stroke
anticonvulsant
agent that prevents or lessens convulsion
hypnotic
agent that induces sleep
sedative
agent that has a calming effect
affect
emotional feeling or mood
apathy
lack of interest or display of emotion
catatonia
state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate
delusion
persistent belief that has no basis in reality
dysphoria
restless, dissatisfied mood
euphoria
exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being
hallucination
false perception of the senses for which there is no reality, most commonly hearing or seeing things
ideation
formation of thoughts or ideas
mania
state of abnormal elation and increased activity
psychosis
mental condition characterized by distortion of reality, resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's environment
major depression
disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior; characterized by feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, and loss of interest
bipolar disorder (BD)
affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression (extreme up and down states)
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and remit in the spring
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
most common anxiety disorder, characterized by chronic, excessive, and uncontrollable worry about everyday problems that affects the ability to relax or concentrate but does not usually interfere with social interactions or employment; physical symptoms include muscle tension, trembling, twitching, fatigue, headaches, nausea, and insomnia-symptoms must exist for at least 6 months before a diagnosis can be made
phobia
exaggerated fear of a specific object or circumstance that causes anxiety and panic; named for the object or circumstance, such as agoraphobia (marketplace), claustrophobia (confinement), or acrophobia (high places
post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
condition resulting from an extremely traumatic experience, injury, or illness that leaves the sufferer with persistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal; may occur after a war, violent personal assault, physical or sexual abuse, serious accident, natural disaster, etc.; symptoms include feelings of fear, detachment, exaggerated startle response, restlessness, nightmares, and avoidance of anything or anyone who triggers the painful recollections
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions, which can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life (e.g., the thought that a door is not locked, with repetitive checking to make sure that it is locked; thoughts that one's body has been contaminated, with repetitive washing)
autism
developmental disability commonly appearing during the first 3 years of life, resulting from a neurological disorder affecting brain function, evidenced by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication, and an inability to relate to anything beyond oneself (auto = self) in social interactions; individuals with autism often exhibit body movements such as rocking, repetitive hand movements, and commonly become preoccupied with observing parts of small objects or moving parts or performingmeaningless rituals
dyslexia
developmental disability characterized by a difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs, affecting reading, spelling, and self-expression
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with the ability to function normally at school, home, or work; specific criteria must be met before a diagnosis is made
mental retardation
condition of subaverage intelligence characterized by an IQ of 70 or below, resulting in the inability to adapt to normal social activities
anorexia nervosa
severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight, evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
bulimia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion through induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise
substance abuse disorders
mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins causing personal and social dysfunction; identified by the abused substance, such as alcohol abuse, amphetamine abuse, opioid (narcotic) abuse, or polysubstance abuse
schizophrenia
disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment characterized by a broad range of "positive" and "negative" symptoms. Positive symptoms include distortions of normal function (behaviors that are absent in normal people, e.g., disorganized thought, delusions, hallucinations, catatonic behavio). Negative symptoms (normal reactions missing in persons with schizophrenia) including flat affect, apathy, and withdrawal from reality
psychotropic drugs
medications used to treat mental illnesses
anxiolytic agents
drugs used to reduce anxiety
antidepressant
agent that counteracts depression
neuroleptic agents
drugs used to treat psychosis, especially schizophrenia