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agent that relieves pain


drug that prevents clotting of the blood; commonly used to prevent heart attack and ischemic stroke


agent that prevents or lessens convulsion


agent that induces sleep


agent that has a calming effect


emotional feeling or mood


lack of interest or display of emotion


state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate


persistent belief that has no basis in reality


restless, dissatisfied mood


exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being


false perception of the senses for which there is no reality, most commonly hearing or seeing things


formation of thoughts or ideas


state of abnormal elation and increased activity


mental condition characterized by distortion of reality, resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's environment

major depression

disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior; characterized by feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, and loss of interest

bipolar disorder (BD)

affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression (extreme up and down states)

seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and remit in the spring

generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

most common anxiety disorder, characterized by chronic, excessive, and uncontrollable worry about everyday problems that affects the ability to relax or concentrate but does not usually interfere with social interactions or employment; physical symptoms include muscle tension, trembling, twitching, fatigue, headaches, nausea, and insomnia-symptoms must exist for at least 6 months before a diagnosis can be made


exaggerated fear of a specific object or circumstance that causes anxiety and panic; named for the object or circumstance, such as agoraphobia (marketplace), claustrophobia (confinement), or acrophobia (high places

post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

condition resulting from an extremely traumatic experience, injury, or illness that leaves the sufferer with persistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal; may occur after a war, violent personal assault, physical or sexual abuse, serious accident, natural disaster, etc.; symptoms include feelings of fear, detachment, exaggerated startle response, restlessness, nightmares, and avoidance of anything or anyone who triggers the painful recollections

obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions, which can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life (e.g., the thought that a door is not locked, with repetitive checking to make sure that it is locked; thoughts that one's body has been contaminated, with repetitive washing)


developmental disability commonly appearing during the first 3 years of life, resulting from a neurological disorder affecting brain function, evidenced by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication, and an inability to relate to anything beyond oneself (auto = self) in social interactions; individuals with autism often exhibit body movements such as rocking, repetitive hand movements, and commonly become preoccupied with observing parts of small objects or moving parts or performingmeaningless rituals


developmental disability characterized by a difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs, affecting reading, spelling, and self-expression

attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with the ability to function normally at school, home, or work; specific criteria must be met before a diagnosis is made

mental retardation

condition of subaverage intelligence characterized by an IQ of 70 or below, resulting in the inability to adapt to normal social activities

anorexia nervosa

severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight, evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal

bulimia nervosa

eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion through induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise

substance abuse disorders

mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins causing personal and social dysfunction; identified by the abused substance, such as alcohol abuse, amphetamine abuse, opioid (narcotic) abuse, or polysubstance abuse


disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment characterized by a broad range of "positive" and "negative" symptoms. Positive symptoms include distortions of normal function (behaviors that are absent in normal people, e.g., disorganized thought, delusions, hallucinations, catatonic behavio). Negative symptoms (normal reactions missing in persons with schizophrenia) including flat affect, apathy, and withdrawal from reality

psychotropic drugs

medications used to treat mental illnesses

anxiolytic agents

drugs used to reduce anxiety


agent that counteracts depression

neuroleptic agents

drugs used to treat psychosis, especially schizophrenia

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