ESOL Vocabulary Words for Exam
Terms in this set (78)
The study of words and their meaningful units.
Smallest unit of meaning in a language - can be words or grammatical inflections (prefixes, suffixes). For example, ed for past.
The smallest sound unit in a language which can distinguish two words. For example, in English the words ban and pan differ only in their initial sound pan begins with /p/ and ban with /b/.
The slightly different phones that make up a phoneme when spoken (difference in sound of individual letters according to their position in a word. For example, /p/ is aspirated when it occurs at the beginning of a syllable as in pot but unaspirated when it is preceded by s as in spot).
A variant of a morpheme which occur in certain definable environment (how you pronounce a particular word). For example, the plural of the morphemes /S/ /-Z/ as in boys, /-S/ as in cats, /-IZ/ as in roses.
the symbols used to write the phonemes and morphemes (letters).
1- A voiced sound often has a counterpart which is voiceless- the voiced sound is called a cognate. Examples are (p, b), (d, t), (g, k), (v, f) - Consonants produced in the same way except one is voiced and the other one is not. 2 - A word in one language which looks similar to and has the same meaning as a word in another language (national, nacional).
A false cognate
words which look similar but have different meanings (actually in English which means really and actually in Spanish which means at the present time).
Suprasegmental phonemes include stress and rhythm, juncture and intonation. Called suprasegmentals because they must always be overlaid on the segmentals (vowels and consonants) since they can never occur without them.
The intensity, the force or prominence of a sound, syllable or word - often used interchangeably with accent.
Where syllables meet. The combination of sounds into syllables which allows us to distinguish between a nice man and an ice man or between I scream and ice cream- context usually clarify meaning.
The rhythm of English speech is produced through the combination of stressed and unstressed syllables which gives a characteristic beat to the language. This is a contrast to languages which are syllable -timed which the syllables are produced in a steady flow unaffected by stress differences.
The rise and fall in pitch- the tune or melody of speech.
Order or sequence of words.
The study of language meaning and how it is acquired. Deals with the meaning of words and sentences.
Vocabulary of a language. The set of words and idioms of any language.
An expression whose total meaning cannot be derived from each individual word within it. Example, he laughed himself sick - I can't do without you.
Words which sound the same but have different spellings and meanings - bear, bare; dear deer.
Words which are spelled the same but have different pronunciations and meanings - refuse, refuse; read, read.
Words which sound the same and are spelled the same but which have different meanings - ring/ring; saw, saw.
the process of adding an affix to a word or changing it in some other way according to the rules of the grammar of a language. For example, in English verbs are inflected for 3rd person singular: I work, he/she works and for past tense: I worked. Most nouns may be inflected for plural: horse-horses, flower-flowers, man-men, foot- feet, ox - oxen (irregular inflexions).
Using existing words to make new words. The process by which affixes are combined with roots to make new words. For example, refuse - refusal, pay - payment.
A linguistic form (a morpheme) which is never used alone, but must be used with another morpheme. For example, the English suffix -ing must be used with a verb stem, e.g. writing, loving, driving.
Free form/ base word
Free morpheme which can stand alone as a word. For example, cat, Lucy, red, write, etc.
Two or three consonant sounds clustered together in a word or syllable, where all consonant sounds are heard. For example, Str (strong), scr (scream), spr (spring), etc
Two consecutive consonants (in a world or syllable) that represent one speech sound. For example, sh, th, ck, etc.
two adjacent vowels in a syllable represent one speech sound. For example, seat, seed, etc.
Two vowels in one syllable where two sounds are heard. For example, oil, house, oyster, etc.
the audible burst of air following a stop consonant. Examples are C, T, P - voiceless stopped consonants.
Refer to compound words- e.g. butterfly, storyteller.
The establishment and description of the distinctive sound units of a language (phonemes).
Study of speech sounds.
Decoding - a method of teaching children to read. It is commonly used in teaching reading in the mother tongue.
a set of rules made up by the learner that maps the new language onto his/ her native language.
When a student inter-language reaches a plateau.
It is concerned with the role played by monolinguistic information, such as background knowledge and personal beliefs in our use and interpretation of sentences. Pragmatics is concerned with the role of context in the interpretation of meaning. Linguistic competence includes pragmatic competence.
The ability to use the language in a variety of settings.
The language used to talk about language.
Conscious monitoring of language use.
Language that a learner can understand - based in part on gestures, situations, prior learning (Krashen).
Switching back and forth between languages for some teaching purpose.
Use of more than one language in a sentence- The act of inserting words, phrases or even longer stretches of one language into the other, especially when communicating with another bilingual person.
Starting a conversation, entering a conversation when others are speaking, contributing to a conversation, ending a conversation, ability to express ideas in writing.
Discourse theory (Hatch)
Basically says that the structure of a language can be learned through learning to communicate and that native speakers adjust their speech in order to negotiate meaning with non-native speakers.
Universal grammar (Chomsky)
Basic principles shared by all languages.
Innate language acquisition device within human brain. Humans are innately endowed with a specific faculty or mental module which provides them with a set of procedures for developing the grammar of their native language.
The teacher presents examples from which the learner induces the relevant second language rules (specific leads to general rules) - typical in the audiolingual approach.
Teacher states the rule and leads the learner in subsequently deducing examples (rule leads to specific).
Deals with how things are said and how they impact the listener, includes volume, pitch and rate. The study or use of non vocal phenomena such as facial expressions, head or eye movements, and gestures, which may add support, emphasis or meaning to what people are saying.
Emphasizing the differences between the student's first language and the target language was relied upon in an effort to create exercises contrasting the two. The first language was thought as interference, hindering the successful mastery of the second.
Psycholinguistics or psychology of language
Is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language.
Study how language functions in society, the effect of culture in language acquisition.
How the brain works to process language.
A form of language associated with a particular social situation or subject matter as in slang, legal language, academic language, etc. Formal, informal form of speech - use depends on setting (family, friends, workplace, etc).
When previous knowledge disrupts or interferes with the performance with another task.
Prior knowledge benefits language.
A systematic approach to collecting information and making inferences about the ability of a student or the quality or success of a teaching course on the basis of various sources of evidence. Assessment maybe done by test, interview, questionnaire, observation, etc.
The incorrect application, negative transfer of previous learned second language material to a present second language context. Example: saying goed for went
A language variety in which sounds, grammar and vocabulary identify speakers according to region and/or social class. Teachers need to know about dialects in order to understand the oral and written behavior (language behavior) of their students. Sometimes children are mistakenly referred to special ed. Programs if teachers are not informed on these issues. We need to know enough about language variability in order to make educational decisions that ensure effectives instruction. It is important to involve students in learning about language varieties and the social contexts in why they are used. The goal should be expansion rather than teaching specific language forms.
English for specific purposes - adult learners need to learn a foreign language to use in their specific fields (science, medicine, law, etc).
• Context: Mainly found in emigrants to another country
• Meaning: Learning a second language does not interfere with learning a first language. Both languages are developed.
• Application: Students in this category show strong growth in the classroom and can function in the curriculum with support.
• Context: Commonly found in children who immigrate to a foreign country when they are very young.
• Meaning: Learning a second language interferes with the learning of a first language. Second language replaces the first.
Application: In schools, students often fit in with the native language students as English has become their primary language.
Partial knowledge or understanding of two or more languages. Lacking mastery of either of them (small vocabulary, incorrect grammar, difficulty with expressing abstract concepts).
A willingness to be liked a valued member of the language community.
practical concerns, like getting a job or passing an exam.
Speaking and writing.
Listening and reading.
Basic interpersonal communication skills. The language ability required for verbal face-to-face communication.
Cognitive academic language proficiency. The language ability required for academic achievement.
process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group.
process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno- cultural group (such as immigrants, or minority groups) are "absorbed" into an established, generally larger community. This presumes a loss of many characteristics of the absorbed group.
Non English proficient
Limited English proficient
Fluent (or fully) English proficient
Refers to the measurement of the degree of bilingualism, which implies a comparison of the proficiencies in two or more languages.
Informed Parental Consent
The permission of a parent to enroll their child in an ELL program, or the refusal to allow their child to enroll in such a program, after the parent is provided effective notice of the educational options and the district's educational recommendation.
Words in which one sound alone makes the difference in meaning. As in pet /pit, robe/ rope, baste/paste.
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