APUSH Chapters 17 and 18
Terms in this set (59)
an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
Areas in the south where cotton farming developed because of the high demand for cotton, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas (partly Florida)
was the head of the southern society. they determined the political, economic, and even the social life of their region. the wealthiest had home in towns or cities as well as summer homes, and they traveled widely, especially to europe. the whites who owned at least 40 or 50 slaves and 800 or more acres
Sir Walter Scott
Author who created idealized society that was fake to make people take their minds off of what was happening
"Poor White Trash"/"Hillbillies"/"Crackers"
poor white people who still claimed superiority over blacks, often from the backwoods/ remote areas. a group of what plantation owners called "undesirable people" who moved from Virginia and the Carolinas to the middle and western parts of the colony
From 1790 - 1820 the number of free blacks rose from 8-13% of the African American Population. They were still treated as second class citizens in the North. Most worked very lowly jobs and did not own land.
Sold "down the river"
slave traders would gather slaves in slave pens and sold them down the Mississippi River.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
United States writer of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896) (Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin)
Denmark Vessey (1822)
slave, planned slave rebellion, before start, he was betrayed by other slave(told master) and was hanged
Nat Turner (1831)
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It began in the north in the 1700's. Becoming a major issue in the 1830's, it dominated politics by the 1840's. Congress became a battle ground between the pro and anti slavery forces
American Colonization Society (1817)
A Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get free blacks to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
a West African nation founded in 1822 by the American Colonization Society to serve as a homeland for free blacks to settle
British emancipation (1833)
The British attempt to abolish slavery in the Carribean/ West Indies (wikipedia)
Theodore Dwight Weld
a prominent abolitionist in the 1830's. He was self-educated and very outspoken. Weld put together a group called the "Land Rebels." He and his group traveled across the Old Northwest preaching antislavery gospel. Weld also put together a propaganda pamphlet called American Slavery As It Is.
Presbyterian clergyman, temperance movement leader and a leader of the Second Great Awakening of the United States.
William Lloyd Garrison/ The Liberator (1831)
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
American Anti-Slavery Society
Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. Argued for "no Union with slaveholders" until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.
An orator and associate of William Lloyd Garrison, Phillips was an influential abolitionist lecturer.
He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)
one of the few black leaders to take seriously the notion of mass recolonization of Africa, in 189 he visited West Africa's Niger Valley seeking a suitable site for relocation
one of the most prominent african american figures in the abolitionist movement. escaped from slavery in maryland. he was a great thinker and speaker. published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star and wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845.
Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy (1837)
"an American Presbyterian minister, journalist, and newspaper editor who was murdered by a mob in Alton, Illinois for his abolitionist views."(Wikipedia)
anti-slavery agitators; "The Free-Soilers' historic slogan calling for 'free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men' attracted small farmers, debtors, village merchants, and household and mill workers, who resented the prospect of black-labour competition-whether slave or free-in the territories
William Henry Harrison (1841)
an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
John Tyler (1841)
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery
Canadian Insurrection (1837)
Group of Canadians rebel, US government tried to uphold neutrality despite popular opposition
In 1837 a steamer, the Caroline, was attacked by the British. They burned it on the shore of New York. This steamer was carrying supplies across the Niagara River. Increased tensions between US and Britain.
1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition
"The Lone Star State". Gained freedom from Mexico but could not be annexed into US because of slavery in Texas. An important part of the Mexico War and John Tyler/ James K. Polk's presidency.
James K. Polk (1844)
11th President, led US to war with Mexico, promised to annex not only texas but also oregon. Believed it was his presidential duty to fufill the Manifest Destiny.
Admission of Texas (1845)
Texas was annexed into the US. Led to the Mexican War. Controversial because of slavery.
Oregon, Washington and part of Idaho—borders declared in an agreement with Great Britain and US in 1846
Hudson's Bay Company
founded in 1670 in London, England, by a group of British merchants eager to exploit the resources of northern Canada
Oregon Trail (1840s)
a route from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon, used by pioneers traveling to the Oregon Territory
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
whigs elected henry clay who doesn't address the taxes issue. democrats pick james k. polk who is the dark horse candidate and wants to annex texas into the union. polk wins and pushes through the annexation of texas.
54 40' Pledge
"54 40 or fight" This was the boundary line that Americans wanted for the Oregon Territory. Threatened British with war of this was not agreed upon.
Oregon dispute. settled in 1846 during the Polk administration on the 49' line.
state settled as part of manifest destiny
Texas Border Dispute
Mexico wanted their border to reach to the Nueces River, America only wanted it to expand to the Rio Grande River.
John Slidell mission (1845)
Prior to the Mexican-American War, Slidell was sent to Mexico, by President James Knox Polk, to negotiate an agreement whereby the Rio Grande would be the southern border of Texas. He also was instructed to offer, among other alternatives, a maximum of $30 million for California by Polk and his administration. Slidell hinted to Polk that the Mexican reluctance to negotiate might require a show of military force by the United States. Under the guidance of General Zachary Taylor, U.S. troops were stationed at the U.S./Mexico border, ready to defend against Mexican attack. The Mexican government rejected Slidell's mission. After Mexican forces attacked at Matamoros the United States declared war on Mexico on May 13, 1846.
Gen. Zachary Taylor
General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.
Nueces River (1846)
The U.S. and Mexico disputed over the southern boundary of Texas.The Nueces River had always been the Texan border, but by demanding the Rio Grand River as the border, Texas received more land from Mexico.
Polk war message (1846)
A speech given to the Senate and House of Reps. concerning the Mexican War.
Gen. Stephen W. Kearny
small army under colonel kearny captured santa fe; went to california to join bear flag revolution
Capt. John C. Fremont
an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.
Bear Flag Republic
aka the California republic; the result of a revolt by Americans on June 14, 1846, in the town of Sonoma against the authorities of the Mexican province of California; the Republic lasted less than a month. The republic eventually became the present-day state of California.
Battle of Buena Vista (1847)
also known as the Battle of Angostura, saw the United States Army use heavy artillery to repulse the much larger Mexican army in the Mexican-American War. Bloodiest battle of the war.
Gen. Winfield Scott
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)
Vera Cruz/ Mexico City (1847)
Vera Cruz- Mexican port that Wilson commanded the navy to capture before congress could respond to his asking them permission to use force against mexico.
Mexico City- the capital and largest city of Mexico is a political and cultural and commercial and industrial center
Nicholas P. Trist
chief clerk of state department, negotiated and signed Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
February 2 1848. The agreement between President Polk and the new Mexican government for Mexico to cede California and New Mexico to the US and acknowledge the Rio Grand as the boundary of Texas. In return, the US promised to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and to pay the Mexicans $15 million.
Descendents of Spanish and Mexican conquerors; Spanish speaking inhabitants of California they were culture of Mexico carried to California
Father Junipero Serra
A major Canadian Franciscan friar that founded the mission chain in California. He was a great promoter of the spread of Christianity because of his missions.
Wilmot Proviso (1846)
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico (1846)
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