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Q1 Dr. Meisel Final Exam
Terms in this set (36)
Roots of Scientific Medicine (aka western medicine)
Traces back to 3000 BC
--"Great Physician"-Took care of the body and mind
--writer, doctor, architect
--later regarded as Egyptian God and associated with the Greek God Asclepius: God of Healing
Greek Physician: Asclepius
Asclepius became defied (idolized as a god)
Incubation Rites at the Asclepiad Temples
Temples were healing resorts
--Patients could take baths
--Get a certain diet
--sick people would journey to a temple for healing
--they would fast for days, hoping that Asclepius would appear at night while they slept with his snake-encirlced staff, cut open their skin. (Supposedly, the snakes would crawl over the cuts to heal them. This god would remove tumors etc. leaving blood stained mats behind, but without any cuts or scars.
--The staff with 2 snakes encircling it became the symbol of healing and, eventually the symbol for the medical professions Caduceus. Many were reported to walk away cured.
Father of modern medicine
"Do good or at least do no harm"
"Look well to the spine for the cause of disease
The four Humors
2. phlegm= water
3. yellow bile= fire
4. black bile= earth
Physician and philosopher
--born in AD 129
As a teenager, became a therapeutes, "attendant" of the healing gof Asclepius
Experimented on the nervous system
Patient case: numbness and tingling in fingers of left hand
Treatment: single manipulation to patient's neck
Galen's Philosophy and Physiology
Regarded anatomy as the foundation of medical knowledge
Dissected and experimented on lower animals (sheep, monkey, goats, pigs)
--distinguished seven pairs of cranial nerves
--described the valves of the heart
--observed the structural differences between arteries and veins (demonstrated that arteries carry blood, not air, as had been taught for 400 years!)
--performed transections o the spinal cord to establish the functions of the spinal cord tracts and nerves
--inferences he made about human anatomy based on dissections of animals often led him into errors.
The primary care professional for spinal health and well being
Chiropractic Pillars (8)
Integrate evidence, clinical experience, patient values, and preferences
•Deliver expert chiropractic adjustments, and other manual treatments
•Embody a tradition of caring, effectiveness and patient satisfaction
•Collaborate and coordinate care with other health professionals
•Enhance patient quality of life and performance
•Promote vitality, wellness and patient empowerment
•Improve quality of life without drugs or surgery
•Offer readily accessible care
1. High level of responsibilty to client
2.Intimate relationship with client
3. Central area of interest and practice objectives
What is the central areas of interest of chiropractic?
Four "Learned" Professions
The Healing Arts
Medicine: traditional western medicine
Eastern: Non-traditional to the western world
CAMS: complimentary and Alternative Medical studies
NCCIH: National Center for Complimentary and Intergrative Health (New Name)
Primary Health Care Professions
By law, expertise and professional ethics, can accept patients WITHOUT REFERRAL
Two forms of licensure:
Based on responsibility and authority
Limited Health Care Professions
Called limited license practitioners by medicare regulations
Restrict Practices to part of the human body
Limit the range of procedures, instruments, or techniques used
Need to screen patients for conditions beyond their scope of practice for purposes of referral when indicated
Limited licensed Health Care Professions: Chiropractic, Podiatry, Optometry, Psychologists
Chiropractic has professional responsibility and authority
--Determine safety of applying methods
--appropriately deal with emergency conditions
--Report to patient any non-chiropractic findings considered unusual and referral if indicated
--Anatomy of the spine and immediate articulations
--Condition of vertebral subluxation
--Scope of practice which encompasses addressing vertebral subluxations and educating patients about subluxations and wellness care
Unlimited responsibility and authority regards to:
scope of practice in caring for their patients
Can do any and all medical care based on certified training expertise
Typically specialists within their primary care field
Healthcare services that do support work for a primary physician (limited or unlimited)
Diagnostic serves= lab test, radiology, genetic testing, diagnostic imaging, and more.
Therapeutic services range from rehabilitation to physical and occupational therapy, as well as massage and speech therapy.
Custodial services include everything from hospice care and long term or acute care to nursing facilities and urgent care
Education= BS degree
Additional certifications and degrees= focused training, expanded scope of practice, more autonomy in practice (freedom)
Examples: nurses, pharmacists, physical therapists, athletic trainers
Claim to use nearly all therapies except drugs and surgery for a broad range of illnesses
Offer to different (or better) services than MDs
Have traditionally attracted patients that were unable to find a cure or relief from orthodox medicine
Methods not empirically validated
Benefits presumed to be suggestive
First adjustment was when?
September 18, 1895
D.D. Palmer - organ manipulation?
D.D. then met Harvey Lillard a janitor in the building where his practice was located, that was deaf in one ear for 17 years.
•D.D. found a "bump" along the spine and tried to resolve it as usual to no avail. He then gave it a greater push and heard a pop and Harvey Lillard began to hear again.
Dr. Tone--DD's Concepts
"Life is the expression of tone", that phrase is the basic principle of chiropractic. Tone is the normal degree of nerve tension. Tone is expressed in functions by normal elascticity, activity, strength and excitability of the various organs, as observed in a state of health
"The amount of nerve tension determines health or disease. In health there is normal tension, known as tone, the normal activity strength and excitability of the various organs and functions as observed in a state of health. The kind of disease depends upon what nerves are too tense or too slack.
"The Involuntary portion of the nervous system and muscles which contract by nerve stimuli must be in a normal tone in order to execute the normal amount of functioning for a health existence."
"Innervation--the nervous influence necessary for the maintenance of life and the various functions required to be performed to produce action, is regulated by the amount of heat which may be furnished in a too great or too little degree. An entire absence of or too much innervation meant death. Nerve and muscle tonicity is dependent upon, and modified by, the amount of heat."
"Excessive tonicity causes erythrism, an abnormal increase of nervous irritability, an augmentation of vital phenomena in organs or tissue. Deficient tonicity causes atony or weakness, a lack or (sic) vitality. Heat may become so intense as to soften, necrose the tissue of nerves and muscles, thereby causing a diminution of vibratory motion by which vital energy is transmitted.
Sept. 18th, 1895-- DD got "the big idea"
It was a process, not a sudden awarness
Evolutionary--not a stroke
"Out of the box" free thinking, not bound by university training
Concept recognizing the nervous system
--He experimented with first adjusting instrument:
wooden chisel and mallet
tapping the spinal vertebrae processes
Forerunner of todays Activator?
DD disavowed methods as beyond "done by hand"
Created the slotted table (nose holes)
--DD approved of table
--NO more broken noses
The principle of self-organization inherent in all matter
33 Principles of Chiropractic (#1)
The major premise
A universal intelligence is in all matter and continually gives to it all its properties and actions, thus maintaining it in existence.
33 Principles of Chiropractic (#2)
The chiropractic meaning of life
The expression of this intelligence through matter is the chiropractic meaning of life.
33 Principles of Chiropractic (#3)
The union of intelligence and matter
Life is necessarily the union of intelligence and matter.
Greek Word Origin
Rev. Samuel Weed named it
Syllogism= relating two premises to draw a conclusion
A formal argument in logic by two statements
-- if all plumbers can do plumbing
--if bob is a plumer
--then bob can do plumbing
The nervous system controls human bodily function
All humans have a nervous system
Therefore, all human function is controlled by the nervous system
Drawing conclusions about the whole from knowledge of the parts:
--reasoning from observations/experience/experiment
Informal or Formal
------Specific data collected
------specific logic applied (statistical analysis)
Advanatages and Limits
--Advantages: self testing
------Completeness of data
------quality of data
------quality of inductive logic
BJ Palmer research clinic
Bj's purpose: to prove chiropractic only
--thousands of cases, many conditions
--single palmer specific technique (occiput, atlas, axis only)
--initial medical workup, two staff MDs
--Chiropractic workup by staff DC's
--same protocol always follwed with each case
Findings According to BJ Palmer
An aim of our clinic, was to prove, by same methods used by medical men, that cases which came to us WERE SICK and did have conditions previously diagnosed as such by medical men, so when they got well under Chiropractic adjustments there was no way the records could renege on the facts that cases did get well of conditions proven by us to be the same as medical men had found.The only method used to restore health to the sick was the Chiropractic principle & practice. No medication was used on any cases at any time in any way. The ONLY Chiropractic method used in these researches, on cases in the B. J. Palmer Chiropractic Clinic, was the specific adjustment of atlas or axis. No other
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