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Topic 5: FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION, CENSORSHIP AND WHISTLE-BLOWING
Terms in this set (24)
What Has Enabled Internet‐Based
-millions of computers, networked together, each with a unique address, able to communicate over wire and through the air.
-Very fast processors
-Very fast communication, in channels of large bandwidth.
-Massive, cheap and small storage
Is the Internet Driving Societal Change?
1. Massive information production
2. The rise of social media for
3. The rise of big data - its storage,
analysis, and use.
4. The loss of centralised control.
What is information production and how has it lead to social change?
-More information is captured, stored, codified and organised.
-Information is transmitted more quickly, widely.
-Information is commoditised.
-Information has become 'BIG DATA', which is great for business
-decision making, though can also cause a problem:
-Being faced with more information than we can efficiently process.
-As a result of information overload, less attention is devoted to other tasks.
-It can reduce productivity, increase stress and can lead to physical health problems.
What is the link between social media and human interaction?
-social media, may be reducing the time spent communication face to face.
-Sensis states that almost eight in every ten Australians use social media, 45% have taken selfies and over 50% of Australians access social media every day.
-99% of those aged 18 to 29 use social media regularly.
-Many younger people find it easier to communicate online than in the real world.
-They have a greater reach in terms of connections, but they are not lasting relationships.
How has the rise of big data led to change?
-Almost everything we do now leaves a digital
- credit card purchases, surfing the internet, facebook posting, swiping your MYKI card etc.
-But the dilemma remains is that a means to make money, or is it a means for social control.
-We are now faced with more info than we can properly process (information overload).
-More personal data is being used for commercial gain leading to privacy concerns.
How has the loss of centralised control of information systems led to change?
-Its a Decentralised information system.
-no government control (Australia).
>Anarchic - with no controlling rules or principles to give
>Rhizomatic - multiple non-hierarchical
entry & exit points (No consequences for making websites).
-Cheap data and systems
What is the concept of a brave new world?
-A new 'country' ; A place to invent a better (??) way
of living and relating.
What is the concept of the new marketplace?
-The emergence of E-bay and Amazon
-The use of Facebook and Instagram for advertisement
-Social Issue of Spam:
> Everyday 300 billion email messages are sent every day - a significant proportion consisting of" unsolicited bulk email or Spam" (90% of email was spam in 2009) Why? Very cost
effective form of advertising.
What is the concept of a place for revolution?
-Hacktivist groups like Anonymous (social change)
-Government hackers like Wiki Leaks (social truth)
-People's Revolution (a social call to arms)
-Consumer Power (Society vs Big Business)
-Anarchy rules (social discord/disobedience)
What is the concept of a contested space?
-"Technology is neither good nor bad, nor is it neutral"
-In the late 1990s, the electrohippies, a radical internet group, undertook a DOS attack on the World Trade Organisation in the name of free trade and caused massive disruption to the WTO's internet traffic.
-Their purpose was to show disapproval of governmental policies of mass media censorship and control of the Internet; in order to provide a 'safe environment' for corporations to do their deals.
What is Kranzberg's 6 Laws of Technology?
1. Technology is neither good nor bad; nor is it
"environmental, social, and human consequences that go far beyond the immediate purposes of the technical devices and practices themselves"
2. Invention is the mother of necessity:
"Every technical innovation seems to require additional technical advances in order to make it fully effective."
3. Technology comes in packages, big and small:
"The fact is that today's complex mechanisms usually involve
several processes and components."
4. Although technology might be a prime element in many public issues, nontechnical factors take precedence in technology‐policy decisions:
"many complicated sociocultural factors, especially human elements, are involved, even in what might seem to be 'purely technical' decisions."
5. All history is relevant, but the history of technology is the most relevant.
"I suggest that this is because most history, as it is currently taught, ignores the technological element."
6. Technology is a very human activity.
"Behind every machine, I see a face‐indeed, many faces: the engineer, the worker, the businessman or businesswoman, and, sometimes, the general and admiral. Further‐ more, the function of the technology is its use by human beings‐and sometimes, alas, its abuse and misuse."
What is Freedom of expression?
What is censorship?
Should the internet by censored?
What are the 3 types of censorship?
what challenges does the internet pose for censorship?
How does the government filter and survey users?
What are the ethical views on censorship?
What are the pros and cons of restricting access to certain sites at work?
What is whistle blowing?
What challenges does whistle blowing pose?
How might people react to whistle blowing?
How can you blow the whistle?
How can ICT help?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Topic 1: Moral Agency
Topic 2: INTRODUCTION TO ETHICAL THEORIES
Topic 4: Virtue Ethics and the IS Professional
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