What is Endocrine System composed of?
Composed of glands that secrete hormones; chemicals secreted into the bloodstream.
Send chemical substances (tears, sweat, milk, saliva) via ducts to the outside of the body.
No matter which homrmones they produce, secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream.
Are four small, oval bodies located on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland or beside.
Where are the parathyroid glands located?
Located on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland or beside.
What are the two parts of the Adrenal Glands?
An outer portion, the adrenal cortex, inner portion, the adrenal medulla.
What is the structure of the adrenal gland?
Adrenal cortex= outer portion; steroid/corticosteroid secretion(complex chemicals derived from cholesterol).
Adrenal medulla= Inner portion; catecholamine secretion(chemicals derived from amino acids).
The adrenal cortex secretes three types of corticosteroids
1.Glucocorticoids 2. Mineralocorticoids 3. Sex hormones
Cortisol and cortisone- metabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins; inflammatory responses; includding blood sugar.
What are the 3 S's hormones from the adrenal cortex influence?
Sugar(cortisol), salt(aldosterone), and sex(androgens and estrogens).
What 2 chemicals from the Islets of Langerhans releases?
Insulin= glucose to glycogen for storage; lowers BS,, glucose into cells and out of blood.
Glucagon=breakdown of glycogen to glucose; glucose into blood; raises BS
A type of loose connective tissue called reticular connective tissue; dominates all lymphoid organs except thymus
It's also called the hypophysis or the master gland. It is a small pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain in a small pocket-like depression of the skull called the sella turcia.
It is a region of the brain under the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. Signals transmitted from the hypothalamus control secretions by the pituitary gland. Special secretory neurons in the hypothalamus send releasing and hormones via capillaries to the anterior pituitary gland.
anterior pituitary gland
Major hormones are the growth hormone (GH), or somatotropin (STH) promotes protein synthesis that results in the growth of bones,muscles and other tissues.
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Also known as thyrotropin. It stimulates the growth of the thyroid gland and secretion of thyroxine (T4) and triiodithyronine (T3).
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Also known as thyrotropin. It stimulates the growth of the adrenal cortex and increases its secretion of steroid hormones (primarily cortisol).
Several gonadotropic hormones influence the growth and hormone secretion of the ovaries in females and the testes in males.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone ( LH)
In females both hormones stimulate the growth of eggs in the ovaries, the production of hormones, and ovulation. In the male , FSH influences the production of sperm, and LH (as interstitial cell-stimulating hormone) stimulates the testes to produce testosterone.
Stimulates breast development during pregnancy and sustains milk production after birth.
posterior pituitary gland
Stores and releases two important hormones that are synthesized in the hypothalamus.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Also known as the vasopressin. It stimulates the reabsorption of water by the kidney tubules, In addition, ADH also increases blood pressure by constriction arterioles.
Stimulates the uterus to contract during childbirth and maintains labor during childbirth.
Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities.
Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues.
The most common form of this condition is Graves disease ( resulting from autoimmune processes).
(protrusion of the eyeballs, or proptosis) occurs as a result of swelling of tissue behind the eyeball, pushing it forward.
Advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood. Atrophy of the thyroid gland occurs, and practically no hormone is produced. The skin becomes dry and puffy because of the collection of mucus-like material under the skin.
Extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leads to a lack of normal physical and mental growth.
diabetes mellitus (DM)
Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells.
Type 1 diabetes
Is an autoimmune disease. Autoantibodies against normal pancreatic islet cells are present. Onset is usually in early childhood.
Type 2 diabetes
Is a separate disease from type 1 and has a different inheritance pattern. Patients usually are older, and obesity is very common.