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Across-fiber pattern principle

notion that each receptor responds to a wide range of stimuli and contributes to the perception of every stimulus in its system


decreased response to a stimulus as a result of recent exposure to it


intensity of a sound or other stimulus


chemical that causes neurons containing substance P to release it suddenly and also directly stimulates pain receptors sensitive to moderate heat


structure in the inner ear containing auditory receptors

Conductive deafness (middle-ear deafness)

hearing loss that occurs if the bones of the middle ear fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea


reduced response to one stimulus because of recent exposure to some other stimulus


area of skin connected to a particular spinal nerve


category of chemicals the body produces that stimulate the same receptors as do opiates


number of sound waves per second

Frequency theory

concept that pitch perception depends on differences in frequency of action potentials by auditory neurons

Gate theory

assumption that stimulation of certain nonpain axons in the skin or in the brain can inhibit transmission of pain messages in the spinal cord

Hair cell

type of sensory receptor shaped like a hair; auditory receptors are hair cells

Labeled-line principle

concept that each receptor responds to a limited range of stimuli and has a direct line to the brain


perception of the intensity of a sound

Nerve deafness (inner-ear deafness)

hearing loss that results from damage to the cochlea, the hair cells, or the auditory nerve

Nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS)

area in the medulla that receives input from taste receptors


sense of smell

Olfactory cells

neurons responsible for the sense of smell, located on the olfactory epithelium in the rear of the nasal air passages

Opioid mechanisms

systems responsive to opiate drugs and similar chemicals

Oval window

membrane of the inner ear, adjacent to the stirrup

Pacinian corpuscle

receptor that responds to a sudden displacement of the skin or highfrequency vibration on the skin

Papilla (pl.: papillae)

structure on the surface of the tongue containing taste buds

Periaqueductal gray area

area of the brainstem that is rich in enkephalin synapses


chemical released by one animal that affects the behavior of other members of the same species


outer-ear structure of flesh and cartilage that sticks out from each side of the head


experience that corresponds to the frequency of a sound

Place theory

concept that pitch perception depends on which part of the inner ear has cells with the greatest activity leve


drug or other procedure with no pharmacological effects

Primary auditory cortex (area A1)

area in the temporal lobes in which cells respond best to tones of a particular frequency

Semicircular canal

canal lined with hair cells and oriented in three planes, sensitive to the direction of tilt of the head

Somatosensory system

sensory network that monitors the surface of the body and its movements

Substance P

neurotransmitter released by nerves that are sensitive to pain


people with heightened sensitivity to taste


experience of one sense in response to stimulation of another sense

Taste buds

structures on the tongue that contain taste receptors


frequent or constant ringing in the ears

Tympanic membrane


Volley principle

tenet that a sound wave of a moderately high pitch may produce a volley of impulses by various fi bers even if no individual fiber can produce impulses in synchrony with the sound waves

Vomeronasal organ (VNO)

set of receptors located near, but separate from, the olfactory receptors

Across species, it appears that the sense organs are most attuned to

biologically useful stimuli.

What is the intensity of a sound wave called?


Loudness is to ________ as pitch is to ________.

amplitude; frequency

What is another name for the tympanic membrane?


The malleus, incus, and stapes are small bones:

which transmit information from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.

The fact that the various parts of the basilar membrane are tightly bound together is problematic for which of the following?

the place theory

People with massive damage to the primary auditory cortex:

cannot recognize combinations or sequences of sounds.

Conductive deafness is also known as:

middle ear deafness

Damage to the part of the cochlea that sends information about high frequency sounds to the primary auditory cortex could result in:


A sound shadow refers to

how much louder a high-frequency sound is for the ear closest to the sound.

In the otolith organs, the otoliths are calcium carbonate particles that:

push against hair cells when moved.

The function of the semicircular canals is to:

detect movement of the head.

What neurotransmitter is released by axons that carry pain information to the brain?

substance P

The sensory aspect of pain activates the ________ cortex, whereas the emotional aspect activates the ________ cortex.

somatosensory; cingulate


can interact with the same receptors as morphine.

What process is predicted by the gate theory of pain?

Non-pain information can inhibit pain information.

Antihistamine drugs tend to ________ itching, and opiates tend to ________ itching.

reduce; increase

Which of the following is TRUE about taste receptors?

Are located mainly along the outside edge of the tongue.

One major difference between olfaction and VNO receptors is that:

VNO receptors do not adapt.

One hypothesis of synesthesia is:

that some of the axons from one cortical area have branches into another cortical area.

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