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Ch 7 stuff

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Across-fiber pattern principle
notion that each receptor responds to a wide range of stimuli and contributes to the perception of every stimulus in its system
Adaptation
decreased response to a stimulus as a result of recent exposure to it
Amplitude
intensity of a sound or other stimulus
Capsaicin
chemical that causes neurons containing substance P to release it suddenly and also directly stimulates pain receptors sensitive to moderate heat
Cochlea
structure in the inner ear containing auditory receptors
Conductive deafness (middle-ear deafness)
hearing loss that occurs if the bones of the middle ear fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea
Cross-adaptation
reduced response to one stimulus because of recent exposure to some other stimulus
Dermatome
area of skin connected to a particular spinal nerve
Endorphins
category of chemicals the body produces that stimulate the same receptors as do opiates
Frequency
number of sound waves per second
Frequency theory
concept that pitch perception depends on differences in frequency of action potentials by auditory neurons
Gate theory
assumption that stimulation of certain nonpain axons in the skin or in the brain can inhibit transmission of pain messages in the spinal cord
Hair cell
type of sensory receptor shaped like a hair; auditory receptors are hair cells
Labeled-line principle
concept that each receptor responds to a limited range of stimuli and has a direct line to the brain
Loudness
perception of the intensity of a sound
Nerve deafness (inner-ear deafness)
hearing loss that results from damage to the cochlea, the hair cells, or the auditory nerve
Nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS)
area in the medulla that receives input from taste receptors
Olfaction
sense of smell
Olfactory cells
neurons responsible for the sense of smell, located on the olfactory epithelium in the rear of the nasal air passages
Opioid mechanisms
systems responsive to opiate drugs and similar chemicals
Oval window
membrane of the inner ear, adjacent to the stirrup
Pacinian corpuscle
receptor that responds to a sudden displacement of the skin or highfrequency vibration on the skin
Papilla (pl.: papillae)
structure on the surface of the tongue containing taste buds
Periaqueductal gray area
area of the brainstem that is rich in enkephalin synapses
Pheromone
chemical released by one animal that affects the behavior of other members of the same species
Pinna
outer-ear structure of flesh and cartilage that sticks out from each side of the head
Pitch
experience that corresponds to the frequency of a sound
Place theory
concept that pitch perception depends on which part of the inner ear has cells with the greatest activity leve
Placebo
drug or other procedure with no pharmacological effects
Primary auditory cortex (area A1)
area in the temporal lobes in which cells respond best to tones of a particular frequency
Semicircular canal
canal lined with hair cells and oriented in three planes, sensitive to the direction of tilt of the head
Somatosensory system
sensory network that monitors the surface of the body and its movements
Substance P
neurotransmitter released by nerves that are sensitive to pain
Supertasters
people with heightened sensitivity to taste
Synesthesia
experience of one sense in response to stimulation of another sense
Taste buds
structures on the tongue that contain taste receptors
Tinnitus
frequent or constant ringing in the ears
Tympanic membrane
eardrum
Volley principle
tenet that a sound wave of a moderately high pitch may produce a volley of impulses by various fi bers even if no individual fiber can produce impulses in synchrony with the sound waves
Vomeronasal organ (VNO)
set of receptors located near, but separate from, the olfactory receptors
Across species, it appears that the sense organs are most attuned to
biologically useful stimuli.
What is the intensity of a sound wave called?
amplitude
Loudness is to ________ as pitch is to ________.
amplitude; frequency
What is another name for the tympanic membrane?
eardrum
The malleus, incus, and stapes are small bones:
which transmit information from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.
The fact that the various parts of the basilar membrane are tightly bound together is problematic for which of the following?
the place theory
People with massive damage to the primary auditory cortex:
cannot recognize combinations or sequences of sounds.
Conductive deafness is also known as:
middle ear deafness
Damage to the part of the cochlea that sends information about high frequency sounds to the primary auditory cortex could result in:
tinnitus
A sound shadow refers to
how much louder a high-frequency sound is for the ear closest to the sound.
In the otolith organs, the otoliths are calcium carbonate particles that:
push against hair cells when moved.
The function of the semicircular canals is to:
detect movement of the head.
What neurotransmitter is released by axons that carry pain information to the brain?
substance P
The sensory aspect of pain activates the ________ cortex, whereas the emotional aspect activates the ________ cortex.
somatosensory; cingulate
Enkephalins
can interact with the same receptors as morphine.
What process is predicted by the gate theory of pain?
Non-pain information can inhibit pain information.
Antihistamine drugs tend to ________ itching, and opiates tend to ________ itching.
reduce; increase
Which of the following is TRUE about taste receptors?
Are located mainly along the outside edge of the tongue.
One major difference between olfaction and VNO receptors is that:
VNO receptors do not adapt.
One hypothesis of synesthesia is:
that some of the axons from one cortical area have branches into another cortical area.