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Terms in this set (75)
Preexilic prophet who was from the Southern Kingdom but preached in the Northern Kingdom. One of the prophets of social justice. Message: worship of God must show itself in concrete deeds of mercy and justice to the weak and poor.
Second and greatest King of Israel, known for his strong faith, for uniting the Tribes of Israel into one Kingdom of Israel, and for establishing the city of Jerusalem as its capital. He also brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem (danced it in, actually!).
He's traditionally credited with composing the psalms, and used his gift of music to soothe his predecessor, Saul.
God makes the Davidic Covenant with him, in which he promises that a descendant of David will reign Israel eternally.
Sin: adultery (Bathsheba) and greed. The prophet Nathan helps him realize this with a parable!
Preexilic prophet of the Northern Kingdom who called down a famine on the kingdom in order to get them to repent; when this failed, he challenged the prophets of Baal to a contest and YHWH won.
Could also do miracles! Raised someone from the dead.
Second-most important figure in the OT aside from Moses; never died-taken up to heaven in a chariot of fire on a whirlwind. Is expected to return and bring the messiah with him.
Preexilic and Exilic prophet of the Southern Kingdom who prophesied even from Babylon. Had wild visions, including the vision of the Valley of the Dry Bones.
Preexilic prophet of the Northern Kingdom; one of the two prophets of social justice. Likened the corruption of Israel (idolatry/injustice!) to the infidelity of his wife, Gomer.
Patriarch and son of Abraham (who almost sacrifices him!). Miraculous birth. Prefigures Jesus. Father of Jacob, who deceives him.
Prophetic book with three contributing authors:
First Isaiah (the real Isaiah), who was a preexilic prophet of the Southern Kingdom who both warned (ex.- Song of the Vineyard) and gave a message of hope (ex.-messiah called Emmanuel).
Also place-kingdom of Israel under Saul, David, Solomon; the northern kingdom after Solomon through Assyrian Exile (922 BC-722 BC).
Patriarch and grandson of Abraham who takes his twin brother's birthright by tricking his father, Isaac. Later, his name is changed to "Israel," meaning "one who wrestles with God," because he wrestled an angel all night. God renews the Abrahamic covenant with him. His sons (including Joseph!) become known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel.
Preexilic and Exilic prophet of the Southern Kingdom who taught by enacting living parables (smashing pottery!). Also, never married in order to show that he truly believed the destruction he foretold would take place.
Son of Jacob (oldest son of his favorite wife, Rachel!) who is favored by his father and has the God-given ability to interpret dreams. His brothers, jealous of this, sell him into slavery and lie to their father, saying he was dead. Joseph nevertheless trusts in God and, through his dream interpretation, ends up as Egypt's chief governor. He eventually reconciles with his brothers and saves Egypt and the Israelites by gathering food that can be distributed during a time of famine.
First Judge and successor to Moses (portrayed as a "New Moses." Leads Israelites into the Promised Land, succeeding militarily due to his great faith. Prefigures Jesus, who shares his name, which means "God saves."
Preexilic prophet of the Southern Kingdom who preached that a messiah would gather and save a faithful remnant and bring a universal reign of peace ("swords into plowshares!")
The Jewish mother-in-law of Ruth who remains faithful to God despite the loss of her husband and sons.
A Moabite woman who showed great fidelity to her Jewish mother-in-law, Naomi, and therefore received God's blessing.
Judge known for his faith in God and his strength. Fought bravely against the Philistines. Had many personal failings that led to infidelity and suffering.
Priest, prophet and final judge. Warned the people that a king would treat them unjustly and tax them oppressively; however, God called him to anoint the first two kings of Israel: Saul and David.
Son of King David who built the Temple in Jerusalem. Known for his wisdom, his reign was one of peace and prosperity (Scriptures were first written down during this time!). However, Solomon, due to his many Canaanite/polytheistic wives, fell into idolatry, which led to the split of the kingdom.
Greek term meaning "five books," referring to the first five books of the Bible
Hebrew word meaning "law." A synonym for Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
The first book of the Pentateuch, its name means "beginning." It tells the stories of creation, sin and the Fall, and how sin spreads, along with God's plan of salvation from sin through covenants with patriarchs.
The second book of the Pentateuch, its name means "departure." It tells the story of the event by the same name wherein God frees the Israelites from slavery in Egypt and brings them through the desert to Mount Sinai. Central figure: Moses.
The third book of the Pentateuch. Its name evokes its writers, the priests (the tribe of Levi was a family of priests). Examines the particulars of the Law and focuses on holiness in all aspects of life.
The fourth book of the Pentateuch; its name comes from two censuses detailed in chs 1 and 26. Continues the story of the Israelites in the desert until they come to the border of the Promised Land.
The fifth and final book of the Pentateuch; its name means "second law." This book repeats much of the story of Gn, Ex, Nm through speeches given by Moses before his death.
A category of Old Testament books that addresses the ways God works in individuals' everyday lives through varied literary expressions (ex. Psalms, Proverbs, Job).
A Wisdom book containing the famous story of the trials of an innocent man; this book takes up the "big question," "Why do bad things happen to good people?"
A Wisdom book containing short sayings for moral living that educate the reader about how to live a good life.
A Wisdom book traditionally attributed to King David, the psalms are a collection of 150 poems/songs traditionally sung in the Temple. There are psalms of praise, thanksgiving, sorrow and repentance.
Source of the Pentateuch that calls God "Lord God;" uses a vivid, earthy style of writing and attributes human traits to God (anthropomorphism)
Source of the Pentateuch; uses the name "Elohim" for God. Often includes angels, visions, dreams as means of God's action. Abraham is a central figure.
Source of the Pentateuch; name means "second law." It provides Moses' speeches on morality and faithfulness to the covenant found in the Book of Deuteronomy.
Source of the Pentateuch containing censuses, genealogies, numbers, dates, descriptions of proper ways to worship/sacrifice. Written by priests and calls God "Elohim."
The proper name of the land promised by God to Abraham (Promised Land). Also called the Land of Milk and Honey.
Where the Israelites fled to for food during the famine in the time of Joseph; where they were later enslaved during the book of Exodus. Where God unleashed the Ten Plagues on the Pharaoh and his people leading up to the Exodus.
The Holy City of Judaism; built as the capital of the Kingdom of Israel by King David, then later a part of the Kingdom of Judah. It was the center of religious, political and economic life for the Israelites/Jews and (from Solomon on) contained the Temple.
The central place for worship built by Solomon in Jerusalem as a permanent home for God among his people. A resting place for the Ark of the Covenant/Ten Commandments/God!
One of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. Also the southern kingdom created at the time of the death of Solomon (922 BC). Lasted until 586 BC, then upon the return of the exiles from Babylon became known as Judea. Contained Jerusalem!!
Mountain in the book of Exodus where God makes the Sinai Covenant with Moses. This holy mountain is also called Horeb and may be the place where Moses experienced God calling him to lead his people originally (think burning bush!).
Covenant made by God with Abraham, in which he promised Abraham land, numerous descendants, and greatness/blessings, while Abraham promised God his love and that he would circumcise all the males of his family.
722 BC; when Assyria conquered the northern kingdom of Israel and deported many into exile (these exiles become the Lost Tribes of Israel)
586 BC; when the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar conquered the southern kingdom of Judah and with it Jerusalem, destroying the Temple (and Ark/Ten Commandments!) and deporting many residents to Babylon.
Also a time of formation for Judaism, when Jewish exiles studied the Law, observed the sabbath, continued the practice of circumcision. From this time comes the development of synagogues, along with the roles of scribes and rabbis and some texts of the Hebrew Scriptures.
Covenant made by God with David ensuring that a leader from his family would always rule Israel. Led the Israelites to believe that the messiah would come from David's family.
The Jewish Feast of Dedication, which celebrates the recovery and purification of the Temple from the Syrians in 164 BC.
A sacred feast celebrating God's saving the Israelites from the Egyptians. The angel of death "passed over" the houses with lambs' blood smeared on their doorposts and lintels. It is still celebrated by Jews as a reminder of God's deliverance, salvation, fidelity and love.
The covenant God made with his Chosen People through Moses on Mount Sinai, in which he gave them the Ten Commandments.
Split of the Kingdom
922 BC, at the death of Solomon.
Northern Kingdom=Israel (Jeroboam, Solomon's servant)
Southern Kingdom=Judah (Rehoboam, Solomon's son)
The holiest day of the Jewish year, the Day of Atonement. Its central themes are atonement and repentance (remember the scapegoat?)
Cycle of apostasy
A pattern of sin detailed in the book of Judges, which follows these steps:
1. The Israelites sin (usually by worshiping false gods).
2. God disciplines the Israelites by handing them over to their enemies.
3. The Israelites cry out to God to save them from their plight.
4. God takes pity on his people and appoints a judge to save them.
5. When the judge delivers, the cycle begins again.
"Apostasy" is the denial of God and the repudiation (rejection) of faith.
Ark of the Covenant
The most important symbol of the Jewish faith. Containing the Ten Commandments, it served as the only physical manifestation of God on earth
The process used by scholars to discover the literal meaning of the biblical text
the diffusion of Greek culture throughout the Mediterranean world after the conquest of Alexander the Great
Holy of Holies
the most sacred place in the Temple; where the Ark of the Covenant containing the Ten Commandments (and thus the presence of God!) was located. Only the high priest could enter once a year, on the feast of Yom Kippur.
worshiping something or someone other than the true God; the principal sin of the Israelites in the Old Testament and a violation of the first commandment.
Military leaders who let Old Testament Israelite tribes in battles against their oppressors. They were only as successful as they were faithful to YHWH.
Literal sense (of Scripture)
"The meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture and discovered by exegesis, following the rules of sound interpretation" (CCC 116).
Spiritual senses (of Scripture)
Help us to understand the Bible's deeper meaning, God's plan of salvation; it flows from a sound literal interpretation. There are three spiritual senses: allegorical, moral and anagogical.
Literalist/fundamentalist reading of Scripture
this way of reading Scripture only takes into account the exact meaning of the words without considering context. This is NOT how Catholics, who are contextualists, read Scripture.
Meaning "what is it?," this miraculous bread was provided by God to the Israelites to nourish them as they wandered in the desert. They could only gather as much as they needed for one day.
name to describe a "father of faith," male ruler, leader or elder (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob (and sometimes Joseph)).
In Hebrew, nabi, "one who speaks for God;" a person who functioned as a "mouthpiece" for God.
A Latin term meaning "first gospel." The initial sign of the very good news that God did not abandon humanity's first parents or their descendants after they committed sin. Eve's offspring (Jesus, New Adam; Mary, New Eve) would someday destroy the snake (sin and death).
religious truths from the creation stories
1. The one true God created the world (out of love!)
2. All of God's creation is good, and God desires peace and harmony for his creation (original holiness and justice)
3. Human beings are made in the image and likeness of God
4. Human beings are stewards of creation, co-creators with God
5. Men and women have equal dignity and are made for each other
6. God is both immanent (and intimately involved in the life of his creation) and transcendent (all-powerful, beyond our understanding)
The story of God's saving action in human history.
Second-century BC Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible made at Alexandria, Egypt
The central creed of Judaism found in Dt 6:4-5: "Hear, O Israel! The Lord is our God, the Lord alone! Therefore you shall love the Lord, your God, with your whole heart, and with your whole being, and with your whole strength."
The portable sanctuary in which the Jews carried the Ark of the Covenant throughout their travels in the desert
A summary of the Law that serves as its basic guide:
1. I am the Lord your God: you shall not have strange gods before me
2. You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain
3. Remember to keep holy the Lord's day
4. Honor your father and your mother
5. You shall not kill
6. You shall not commit adultery
7. You shall not steal
8. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor
9. You shall not covet your neighbor's wife
10. You shall not covet your neighbor's goods
an appearance or manifestation of God
St. Jerome's fourth-century translation of the Bible from Greek into the common language of the people of his day, Latin.
The "anointed one" promised by the Old Testament prophets. He would be a descendant of David who would set up an ideal kingdom and save all people. Christians believe Jesus Christ is the messiah.
God's sacred name, revealed to Moses; means "I am who I am" or "I AM" and is never pronounced by Jews
Twelve Tribes of Israel
The descendants of the twelve sons of Jacob (Israel).
A meeting place for Jews for study and prayer. Origin: Babylonian Exile
A binding and solemn agreement between human beings or between God and people, holding each other to a particular course of action.
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