179 terms

Texes Generalist 4-8

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Phonology
study of the sound system of language
phonemes
basic units of sound
graphemes
letters that represent sound
Morphology
Study of the sturcture of words and word formations
Morphemes
smallest representation of meaning (made up of root word (car) and the plural morpheme (s) to make up cars.
Syntax
The ways in which words are organized and arranged in a language.
kernel sentences
basic sentence structures that include a noun, verb and predicate nominative (Katrina was a hurricane)
Lexicon
The vocabulary of a language (different meanings of words like "hot") Can change at any time.
Semantics
The meaning of words
connotation
implied meaning of words and ideas. (it's raining cats and dogs) This causes new english language learners problems because they do not understand American culture.
idiom
phrase or expression that has a figurative or sometimes literal meaning (it's raining cats and dogs)
denotation
literal meaning of words and ideas
Pragmatics
describes how context can affect the interpretation of communication. When asked "how are you?" and ELL may feel the need to ellaborate instead of just saying "I am great" or "fine".
intelligible speech
can be understood by native speakers with minimum effort
Fluency
quality or condition of being fluent
Motto of the United States
One Nation Under God
Comprehension Strategy of Reciprocal Teaching
summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting.
The purpose of having a teacher-led discussion prior to having students engage in small-group discussions might be to primarily do which of the following?
To provide additional scaffolding for students who may need the explicit modeling prior to engaging in their own discussions
Volume of a cube formula
V=s^3
Arteries
Carry blood away from the heart
Scientific Inquiry
The parts of any scientific investigation (observations, question, procedure, etc.) are collectively referred to as
Folklore
name for the larger genre that includes the subgenre of traditional stories
Velocity
speed and direction of a moving object
Percentage Error
error amount/total degrees possible (ex. 88 is 2 less then 90 so the error is 2/90=
Fusion
...
convection curent
Transfer of heat energy into a fluid
Closure Property of Addition
If A and B are real numbers then A+B is a real number.
Commutative Property of Addition
a+b=b+a order doesn't change the sum
Associative Property of Addition
(a+b)+c=a+(b+c) order doesn't change sum even with parenthesis
Identity Property of Addition
The sum of a number and zero is the number itself a+0=a
Closure Property of Multiplication
If A and B are real numbers then AxB is a real number
Commutative Property of Multiplication
The order of the factors doesn't change the product. axb=bxa
Associative Property of Multiplication
The order of factors doesn't change the product (axb)c=b(axc)
Identity Property of Multiplication
The product of a number and 1 is itself ax1=a
Zero Multiplication Property
The product of a number and 0 is 0. ax0=0
Distributive Property
The order of the addends doesn't change the sum a(b+c)=ab+ac
Order of Operations (PEMDAS)
Order in which you solve a math expression: Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, and Subtraction
Greatest Common Factor in Fractions
The greatest number that divides both A and B evenly (60/140 GCF=20) 60/140 simplified is 3/7
Improper Fractions to Mixed Numbers
numerator/denominator
Least common multiple
The common denominator when adding and subtracting fractions. 2/7+1/3= 6/21+7/21=13/21
Multiplaction of Fractions
multiple the tops and bottoms of the fractions and then simplify. 5/6x3/4= 15/24=5/8
Division of Fractions
Invert and multiply 1/6Divided by 2/3= 1/6x3/2= 1/4
1st Law of Exponents
a^n x a^m= a^m+n
2nd Law of Exponents
(ab)^n= a^n+b^n
Power of a Power
(a^n)^m=a^nm
Power of a Quotient
(a/b)^n=a^n/b^n
Fractional Exponents
Negative Exponents
Complex Number i
i=√-1
Foil
Process Used to multiple to binomials. (First, Outer, Inner, Last) ex=(7+2i)(3-4i)
slope intercept
y=mx+b
slope
point-slope formula
quadratic function
parabola
symmetrical function that has a line of symmetry through the vertex.
minimum (parabola)
bottom point of a parabola that opens upwards
maximum (parabola)
top point of a parabola
tongue twisters
language play that is commonly used to practice pronunciation and language patterns.
semantics
meaning of words
structural clues
letter grouping and its meaning
inflectional morphemes
function as suffixes and native to English (car(s), park(ing))
derivational morphemes
come from foreign language and have constant meaning (bio=life)
Homonyms
same sound and spelling words that have different meanings (club, bank, fine)
Homophones
Sound the same but are spelled different
Homographs
spelled the same but have more then one pronunciation (bow)
miscue analysis
observation that a teacher performs when they have a child read out loud and write down miscues and then discuss them with the child.
scaffolding
support given to a student during the learning process that helps them build upon what they know.
automaticity
quick and accurate recognition of letters, words and language conventions.
Middle School WPM
120-150
running record
assessment strategy to gage a students word identification skills and fluency in oral reading
reciprocal teaching
develops comprehension through the use of summarizing, questioning, clarifying and predicting. It designates roles for each task in a group.
convergent question
only one answer is correct
divergent question
more then one answer is correct
cloze test
passage with omitted words that the test taker must supply
Independent Level
95% of words correct when reading
Instructional Level
90-94% of words correct when reading
Frustration Level
reads 89% or fewer words correctly when reading
STAAR
State of Texas Assesments of Academic Readiness
Exposition
Literary style that is used to introduce the background info and to introduce or understand the characters.
Dialogue
Communication among the characters
Vocabulary
word choice (concrete or abstract)
imagery
the use of words to create sensory impressions
Tone
the authors mood and manner
analysis of the story
might be traditional, multicultural, or include stereotypes
conventions
the use of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling in writing.
expository writing
writing that explain and clarifies ideas
visual salience
using design features to generate a certain effect (using different colors, sizes)
SQ4R
study planning that includes: survey, question, read, write, recite, review
DRTA
Direct reading/thinking activity
5 parts of the history of the world
Ancient world, middle ages, age of discovery, revolution and industry, modern world.
Mayans
developed a highly integrated society, with many religious observances which included human sacraficing. Developed a calendar, system of writing and the mathematical concept of 0. Highly advanced knowledge of astronomy, engineering and art.
Teotihuacan
relgious ceremonial site built by early native american civilizaton.
Aztecs
acheived the highest degree of development in Mexico. Had a king, an army and many skilled workers. The population was about 5 million at their peak.
Incas
Children of the sun- not as advanced as other tribes but they had a advanced political system and monumental road system.
Algonquians
most notorious Native American tribe due to the fact that they were the first to interact with the English settlers at Plymouth. Skilled hunters, gatherers and trappers. Taught the settlers their knowledge of the agriculture which most likely saved the settlers lives.
Iroquois
hunters and fishers. Agriculture was their main economic activity. Women did most of the farming. Developed a confederation to discourage war among groups.
Seminoles/Muscogee Creeks
Lived in bark covered homes called chickees. Hunters and planters. Best known for their struggles with settlers in the mid 1800'.
Cherokee
Lived in dome houses and made deer and rabbit skin clothing. Known for their basketry and pottery.
Pueblos
lived in pueblos and wore clothes of wool and cotton. Produced drought resistant corn and squash. Survied the conquest and colonization.
Apache
lived in wickiups. Wore cotton clothing. Leader was Geronimo.
Navajo
excellent weapon makers, weavers, and silversmiths. Lived in hogans. Wore rabbit skins.
1492
Year of Columbus' voyage
13 Original Colonies
Virginia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Georgia. settled by the English. Divided into 3 types based on their charter and in 3 different areas.
Jamestown, Virginia
First English Colony
Virginia House of Burgess
First colonia assembly of elected representatives from Virginia
Mayflower Compact
drawn and signed by the Pilgrims in the Mayflower. One of the earliest agreements to establish a political body and to give the body power.
Indentured Servants
Original servants that sold themselves to ship captains to leave for the new world. They would work off their debt and then be free. Unlike African slavery.
Enlightenment
period during seventeenth and eighteenth centuries where people began questioning religion and started emphasizing science.
Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson. Made of 3 key parts. Discussed natural rights, grevances commited by Britian, and announced the colonies.
Articles of Confederation
Served as the first American constitution. Established America as a confederation of sovereign states.
US Constitution
Revised Articles of Confederation. Divided the US government into 3 branches. Judicial, executive and legislative.
War of 1812
Conflict between the US and Britain after the Revolution. Ended with the Treaty of Ghent.
13th Amendment
Amendment the abolished slavery
14th Amendment
gave African Americans full citizenship
15th Amendment
Allowed black men to vote.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
A trial in which a slave named Dred Scott tried to prove that he should be free due to the fact that his owner took him into free states. The decision was made that because he was a slave he had no rights.
18th Amendment
Prohibited Alcohol
21st Amendment
Repealed the prohibition of alcohol
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments of the US Constitution guarenteeing rights
Jim Crow Laws
Laws that descriminated against blacks after they were granted freedom and equal rights.
Plessy V. Ferguson
allowed legalized segregation of seperate but equal facilities
Chicano Movement
Mexican American struggle for human rights in the 1960's.
19th Amendment
guarenteed women the right to vote
Spanish-American war of 1898
United states gained Cuba, Guam and Puerto Rico from Spain. Cuba became independent and the rest became American Citizens
Treaty of Versailles
Ended WWI and put heavy penalties on the Central Powers.
Cohuiltecans, Karankawas, Jumanos, Comanches, Apaches and Caddos
Native Americans that were based in Texas
Cabeza de Vaca
Explored Texas and came in contact with the Caddo Indians
Fracisco Vazquez de Coronado
After report of a mythical city being in Texas Coronado came and explored only to be left empty handed.
Robert de la Salla
established a French colony in Texas. The colony was masacred by the Native Americans. After that the French never had control of Texas again.
Catholic Missions in Texas
Were used to convert Native Americans to catholicism but also used to maintain Spain's control of Texas.
Mexican War of Independence
Mexico took control of Texas and also won their independence from Spain.
Stephen F Austin
Colonized Texas while it was under Mexican rule. His colony was called Old Three Hundred
Battle of Gonzales
Beginning of the Texas Independence war. Mexico came to take a cannon away from the settlers and instead the settlers fired on Mexico.
Texas
28th State of the Union
Six Flags over Texas
Different countries that exerted control in Texas. Spain, France, Mexico, Republic of Texas, United States, Texas in the Confederacy, American Union
Physical and cultural geography
2 main areas of Geography. One represents the physical characterestics of the surface, the other deals with the interactions of humans with the environment.
Reference Map
Show locations- road maps, reference maps
Thematic Map
Map that shows a particular topic- population density or physical features
Deposition
process of carrying soil from one place to another, usually through water or wind
Cultural diffusion
exchange or transmission of cultural information and lifestyles from people around the world.
Macroeconomics
study of the economy on a big scale: world, regional state
Microeconomics
Study of th economy on a small scale: household, firm, or industy
Scarcity
There are limited resources despite consumer's unlimited wants
Gross Domestic Product
total value of all goods and services produced in the country. GDP=C+I+G+(X-M)
Price Index
(price in any year/price in base year)/100
Real GDP
(Nominal GDP/Price Index)
Inflation Rate
(current year PI-Previous years PI)/previous years PI
Unemployment Rate
(# of people unemployed/number of people in labor force)x100
Sixteenth Amendment
Allowed the imposition of direct taxation of citizens (federal income tax)
Tenth Amendment
Amendment that states that the powers not specifically delegated to the federal government are reserved for the states.
One from Many
E Pluribus Unum
Standard Form
Ax + By = C
Quadratic Function
ƒ(x)= ax^2 + bx + c
Volume of a cube
LxWxH
systematic scientific error
due to faulty instruments
Random scientific error
Not predictable, due to human error, recoding data incorrectly, or inaccurate reading of measurements.
exothermic reaction
When heat is given off in a chemical change
endothermic reaction
when heat is absorbed in a chemical change
atomic mass
protons + nuetrons
stable atom
number of protons and electrons are equal
ion
negative charged atom due to loss or gain of one or more electrons
molecules
two or more atoms bonded together in a chemical bond
ionic bonds
electrons are transferred from one atom to another
covalent bonds
electrons are shared betweens different atoms in a molecule
compounds
two or more different kinds of atoms in a molecule and a given amount of that substance
Mixtures
combination of two of more substances where each substance is distinct from the other. Heterogenous or homogeneous (milk)
kinetic energy
object possessing energy because of its ability to move.
potential energy
energy that an object has as the result of its position or condition
activation energy
the energy necessary to transfer or convert potential energy into kinetic energy.
refraction
when light traveling in a straight line hits an object or substance and is bent
reflection
when light waves bounce back (looking in a mirror)
Monera
unicellular organisms, made of prokaryotic cells, ex=bacteria
Protista
diverse mostly unicellular organisms that live in aquatic habitats. ex: amoeba
fungi
multicellular organisms with a sophisticated organization system. Do not have chlorophyll so they cannot produce food through photosynthesis. obtain energy from digesting dead minerals. ex: mushrooms, mold
Plants
multicellular organism. have chloroplasts a component that allows them to trap sunlight as energy for the process of photosynthesis.
Animalia
multicellular organisms with multiple forms and shapes. Specialized senses and organs. Most sophisticated life form.
tissue
groups of cells with similar functions
organ
complex system of tissues working together to carry on one of the body's life functions
organ system
group of organs working together to support and carry out life functions