Semester 2 History Finals (2)
Terms in this set (76)
Which three countries were part of the Triple Entente?
Formed by France, Great Britain, and Russia in 1907.
How did imperialism lead to WWI?
Rivalries over colonies and trade grew in European countries; Imperialism and Nationalism were the driving force of the alliances.
What were the causes of WWI?
*Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated by a Serbian from a group called the Black Hand.
Why was the Balkan region referred to as the "Powder Keg" of Europe prior to WWI?
Nationalsim and Imperialism
Whose assassination helped trigger WWI?
Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated by a Serbian from a group called the Black Hand.
What was the Schlieffen Plan?
(Plan) Germany traveled through Belgium to get to France to eliminate France and focus on Britain. Germany only got to (about) Paris and were stuck in the trenches for 4 years. They did this because Russia was mobilizing their troops to the German borders.
What did Trench Warfare in WWI led to?
Stalemate; like a tie: no winner, no loser.
How did technology make WWI different from previous conflicts?
More casualties; were able to kill more efficiently and quickly.
A new weapon during WWI that caused blindness, blisters, and choking?
How did fighting on the Eastern front compare to that of the Western front?
Eastern front: -Much more mobility compared to the Western front.
-Germans easily destroyed to Russian army.
-Italy attacked Austria, was originally a member of the Triple Alliance (Central Powers). Became a member of the Allies (Triple Entente).
The Western Front: -Germany hoped for a quick end by circling its troops through Belgium, around Paris and cutting off the French army.
-They met resistance from the French troops, ended in a stalemate.
-Both sides dug trenches and stayed behind these lines or trenches for 4 years.
Who was forced to assume full responsibility for the war under the Treaty of Versailles?
Put the blame of the war on Germany.
What goal for postwar peace was shared by the British and French leaders in creating the Treaty of Versailles?
France and Great Britain wanted the Germans to pay reparations and give up a lot of land.
During WWI, which group of people were victims of genocide?
What action did many governments take during WWI?
-Countries set up planned economies and controlled almost all aspects of the country
-Every member of society was expected to be contributing to the war effort.
-Propaganda was was used to motivate people
-Newspapers were censored or shut down, people were arrested for protesting.
-Woman were asked to take over jobs that men had left behind.
What international organization was created after WWI to preserve peace?
USA wanted peace and came up with the idea of League of Nations.
The successful invasion of which country led to military leaders gaining control of Japan?
How did the loss of Germany colonies in Africa help contribute to the outbreak of WWII?
Since they lost their colonies in Africa, Germany wanted to gain more land. This broke the Treaty of Versailles which led to WWII.
What was the "Mukden incident"?
On the night of September 18, 1931, Japanese soldiers, disguised as Chinese, blew up a small section of the Manchurian Railway near the city of Mukden.
Reason how Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles?
-Hitler increased the size of the German Army by nearly 500,000 troops.
-He created a new air force.
-Hitler moved his armies to areas that were supposed to be without troops (demilitarized).
-The other European powers did not do much because they were stuck in the Depression.
-Again, European powers did nothing...process was called appeasement.
Why were countries in Europe not very eager to stand up to Hitler?
The countries of Europe weren't very eager to stand up to Hitler because these nations were distracted by their own internal problems (the Great Depression) and did nothing further.
Who were the Axis powers?
Germany, Japan, and Italy.
Why did Hitler sign a non-aggression treaty with Stalin?
Hitler feared an alliance of the West and the Soviet Union because such an alliance could mean a two-front war for Germany.
Why was the Battle of Stalingrad a crushing defeat for Germany?
Germany lost the entire German Sixth Army (considered the best of the German troops) which was a crushing defeat.
What was Hitler's "Final Solution"?
Hitler's "Final Solution" was genocide (physical extermination) of the Jewish people.
What was Germans offensive military strategy during WWII?
Hitler used a tactic called blitzkrieg or "lightning war" to conquer much of Europe.
What was decided at the Tehran Conference?
The Alliance/Big Three met at Tehran in November 1943 to decide the future course of the war.
What was decided at the Potsdam Conference?
Who suffered a 1/4 of all deaths during WWII?
Who was the "Big Three" or Allies?
Great Britain, US, and the Soviet Union
What was the major purpose of the Yalta Conference?
A meeting by the Big Three to figure out what to do after the war.
What did the Nuremberg trials condemn Nazi leaders for?
Crimes against humanity
What did the economic recovery of Japan primarily focus on after WWII?
American influence in Japan industry.
Fascism emphasizes the need for what?
By emphasizing for a strong control government led by a dictorial ruler.
What fatal mistake did Kerensky make regarding WWI...what was the result?
Decided to carry on the war to preserve Russia's honor. This decision to remain in WWI was a major blunder. It satisfied neither the workers nor he peasants, who were angry and tired from years of suffering and wanted the war to end.
Which treaty did Lenin sign to end WWI...what was the result?
On March 3, 1918, Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and gave up Eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and he Baltic provinces.
How did Mussolini gain the support of the Catholic Church?
Mussolini's have a loan to the Catholic Church, in return the Catholic Church urges Italians to support Fascist regime in Italy.
What was a factor that led many Germans to support Hitler?
Hitler promised a new Germany that appealed to nationalism and militarism.
What work was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles?
They wrote the Communist Manifesto
What type of government aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual and cultural lives of its citizens?
The Totalitarian state
What was Stalin's Five Year Plan?
Stalin introduced the Five Year Plan because he wanted the country to shift from agriculture to industry.
How did Russia's participation in WWI affect its empire?
-The Czar rule was ended
-The Bolsheviks/Communists took power
-Russia lost a lot of land because of the Treaty of Brest-Litovske (peace treat)
-Civil war broke out
How did fascist leaders in the 1920's and 1930's gain popular support?
Mussolini converted thousands to the Fascist party with his nationalistic appeals (national pride)
What tactic did fascists use to gain power?
What economic policy was different for the Soviets than the Germans and Italians?
The New Economic Policy
What did Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931 indicate about the ability of the League of Nations?
League had little power to control the country
How did the Enabling Act allow Hitler to establish a totalitarian state?
This law gave the government the power to ignore the constitution for 4 years while it issued laws to deal with the country's problems. It also gave Hitler's actions a legal basis (Hitler basically became dictator).
What was the Cold War?
The Cold War was USSR vs. USA; it was called the Cold War because neither side actually had direct war against the other side.
Who controlled East Germany after WWII?
In which ways did East (communist) and West (capitalistic) countries compete post-WWII?
Military, Economy, and Space Race
What type of economic system did the East operate under?
German Democratic Republic
What were most countries in Eastern Europe called in the 1950's?
Why was the Soviet Union and USA reluctant to become in direct military conflict?
They feared a nuclear war
Which event was a product of the policy of containment in Asia?
The Vietnam War
How did Mao Zedong believe that China could become a classless society?
A Chinese Revolution to overthrow the government and establish a Communist government.
What was the main reason the Chinese Communist gained control of mainland China?
Mao Zedong gained the support of the poverty-stricken peasants in the country side and supported them.
What was a negative aspect of the Cold War? Also lead to the collapse of the Soviet Union?
The high cost of the nuclear war.
Whose political ideas influenced Communist leaders?
Karl Marx (and V.I. Lenin)
What was the main reason for the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe during the late 1980's?
Gorbachev stopped giving support to Communist governments in Eastern Europe because of reduced military budgets.
What did nations who adopted a policy of nonalignment believed they should do?
Be isolated from the super-powers, treaties, trade, and the U.N.
Which event best symbolized the end of the Cold War?
The fall of the Berlin Wall.
What did Americans fear after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I?
They feared that the Soviet Union had a massive lead in building missiles.
What did the Warsaw Pact seek to do?
The Warsaw Pact sought to bring together the Communist countries.
What world leader instituted the process known as de-Stalinization?
Why did the U.S. support many dictators in Latin America?
To protect U.S. interests and stop the spread of communism.
Which revolution inspired many revolutions in Latin America?
Which group was responsible for putting the Perons in power in Argentina?
Why did many Latin America countries suffer economic difficulties after WWII?
They depended on the United States, Europe, and Japan, especially for the advanced technology needed for modern industries. Also, many Latin American countries had failed to find markets abroad to sell their manufactured products.
Who was the leader of the ANC in South Africa?
The post WWII era in Africa was most characterized by what?
What was the conflict between the Hutu and Tutsis in Rwanda based on?
When did the goals of Zionism start to become reality?
May 14, 1948
What type of divide the Sunni/Shia represent?
Different branches of Christianity; Religion
The creation of Israel led to tensions with what nation?
Which country did the Khmer Rouge rule?
What was the primary goal of student protests in Tiananmen Square?
To call for an end to the corruption and demand the resignation of China's aging Communist Party leaders.
What does the use of wood, charcoal, and dung create an increase of?
Deforestization and other environmental problems.
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