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Test 1 (Chapters 1, 2, 3)
Terms in this set (107)
What was the colonists' primary complaint about the rule of the British Crown?
They were subject to heavy taxes from the British Crown.
Which of the following was a component of the Coercive Acts?
Establishment of martial law, the requirement for the colonists to quarter British soldiers, the closure of the port of Boston, and the dissolution of the Massachusetts legislature
Which event directly resulted from the Coercive Acts?
the meeting of the First Continental Congress
Which section of the Declaration of Independence contains arguments on the right to revolution?
the second section, based on Lockean philosophy
Who was given the primary responsibility for drafting the Declaration of Independence?
What were the main ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence?
individual rights and liberties and the duty of the government to protect them
What did the Declaration of Independence actually do?
It dissolved colonial allegiance to Great Britain.
The Articles of Confederation specified that the United States would be which form of government?
What concerned the Founders in drafting the Articles of Confederation?
Mob rule, arbitrary monarchical power, large territory size, and the ability of the people to check government power
Which of the following was NOT a component of the Articles of Confederation?
a bicameral legislature
What led the Founders to realize that the Articles of Confederation needed to be reconfigured?
Crises like Shays' Rebellion, the inability of the national government to control financial concerns and raise taxes, the disproportionate power held by the states, and the vulnerability of the new nation
As the Constitution was being drafted, who was most in support of equal representation in the national legislature?
small states, such as Rhode Island
Which of the following plans for representation was incorporated into the Connecticut Compromise?
Each state would be proportionally represented in one house of a bicameral legislature.
Debates at the Constitutional Convention surrounding the executive branch included which of the following?
BOTH how many executives and how to elect the executive
The Constitution differed from the Articles of Confederation in which of the following ways?
The Constitution gave Congress the power to establish a national court system.
What did it take for Virginia and New York to finally agree to ratify the Constitution?
What did it take for Virginia and New York to finally agree to ratify the Constitution?
a promise to amend the document to clarify the limits on national government power
Why did the Framers choose a republican form of government when drafting the Constitution?
They wanted both to ensure that the people would be represented AND to limit the potential power of factions.
The principle of the separation of powers was PRIMARILY intended to do which of the following?
limit the power of the central government
The Framers divided power among which three branches of government?
the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary
Which of the four principles outlined in the Constitution has been a subject of ongoing debate? Choose the BEST answer.
How does the U.S. Constitution differ from many state constitutions?
The U.S. Constitution has only seven articles AND a much more rigorous amendment process.
What are the three major sections of the Constitution, according to the text?
the preamble, the branches of government, and the state and national governments
The powers granted to Congress are enumerated in which article of the Constitution?
Article II does which of the following?
It vests executive power in the president.
Article III gives Congress power over the judicial branch in which of the following ways?
both choice as to the number of justices on the Supreme Court AND the power to create lower federal courts
Why does the text describe the amendment process as a decision tree? Choose the BEST answer.
The amendment process is comprised of a series of decisions made by various actors.
Why did the Framers make it relatively difficult to amend the Constitution? Choose the BEST answer.
They intended for all ratified amendments to have widespread support.
One-third of the amendments to the U.S. Constitution fall under which of the following categories?
In total, how many amendments have been added to the U.S. Constitution?
According to the text, which amendment has the Supreme Court largely ignored?
Which amendment(s) may be considered "coercive" in regard to the states?
the Civil War amendments
Eight of the seventeen amendments added after the Bill of Rights address which of the following issues?
Which of the following statements about the amendment process is accurate?
The failure of the Equal Rights Act to become an amendment shows the difficulty of modifying the Constitution.
Which of the following does the text consider an advantage of the amendment process?
Vague language allows for flexibility and diversity in interpretation.
Which of the following government entities have powers that are or have historically been open to debate?
The states, the executive branch, the judicial branch, and the legislative branch
Which of the following accurately characterizes the necessary and proper clause?
It is both an enumerated power AND gives Congress the authority to carry out other vague powers.
The full faith and credit clause was intended for which purpose?
ensuring that states respect the laws of other states
"The supreme law of the land" includes which of the following?
both treaties AND the Constitution
Which of the following statements about federalism is correct?
Federalism was a subject of intense debate during the drafting of the Constitution.
Madison's concept of "double security" was PRIMARILY intended to check which of the following?
the abuse of political power
Federalism is BEST described as which of the following?
division of power between the federal and state governments
With regard to the federal government, states generally felt which of the following?
States both enjoyed their sovereignty AND believed that the federal government had certain responsibilities toward the states.
Which of the following characterizes the evolution of the balance of power between state, local, and national governments?
The federal government has progressively assumed greater responsibility for domestic and economic issues.
Which governmental institution is PRIMARILY credited with the most recent shift in the balance of power between the state and federal governments?
the Supreme Court
Which type of federalism is characterized by the national and state governments working independently of each other?
Which of the following characterizes the power of the national government during the age of dual federalism?
independent of the states; relatively low in comparison to the states; pertaining mainly to commerce, defense and international trade; and limited by the Supreme Court.
During the age of dual federalism, the Supreme Court limited the power of the national government through its interpretation of which portion of the Constitution?
the commerce clause
The issue that acted as a catalyst in the shift toward cooperative federalism was PRIMARILY of what nature?
economic and financial
The federal government became more involved in state and local matters through which of the following measures?
helping to provide public services, assuming responsibility for stimulating the economy, creating new federal programs, and the use of grants-in-aid.
Incentives provided by grants-in-aid act as a substitute for which of the following? Choose the best answer.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal legislation did which of the following?
It ushered in an era during which the powers of the federal government were protected by the Supreme Court.
Issues causing a shift from cooperative to coercive federalism were PRIMARILY of what nature? Choose the best answer.
How did the national government ensure cooperation with its policies during the era of coercive federalism?
through the Supreme Court's expanded interpretation of the commerce clause and by threatening to remove funding from programs.
According to the text, proponents of new federalism support which of the following measures?
returning power to the states
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 contained which of the following provisions?
-It required insurance companies to provide coverage to individuals with preexisting conditions.
-It allowed individuals to remain on their parents' insurance up to the age of 26.
-It mandated that all citizens must have medical insurance.
-It expanded Medicaid coverage.
Why was the health care reform legislation challenged in court?
Opponents of the law felt that the federal government had overstepped its authority.
We currently consider the United States to be in which of the following eras of federalism?
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the struggle for power between the state and federal governments?
The struggle characterizes a federal system.
According to the text, which philosophical debate PRIMARILY caused the secession of the Southern states prior to the Civil War? Choose the best answer.
Events such as the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the 9/11 terrorist attacks have generally resulted in which of the following?
shifts in the balance of power toward the federal government
New governmental entities were created in the wake of which of the following crises?
in the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001; Hurricane Katrina; the Great Depression; and the Civil War.
The national government withholding highway funding from states until they comply with national laws represents an example of which of the following?
President Johnson, according to his 1966 statement, considered the establishment of which federal agency to be "an essential building block" for the future of the United States?
the Department of Transportation
Precedent set in which of the following areas could allow the federal government to preempt state activity in the regulation of net neutrality?
Scientific and technological developments affect issues of federalism in which of the following ways?
They both provide a means for presidential creation of public works projects AND they tend to dissolve boundaries between states, counties, and towns.
Reagan's vision of federalism differed from most other modern presidents' visions in which of the following ways?
He believed that a federal system should limit the scope of government in order to protect civil liberties.
Clinton's 1998 executive order on federalism reflected ideas primarily attributed to which of the following?
According to the text, which of the following represents a major weakness of decentralization?
It results in highly inefficient policies.
According to James Madison, a tyranny of the majority could be avoided in which of the following ways?
by both having a diversity of views AND extending the sphere of government
Civil liberties can be described as which of the following?
freedoms that protect citizens from the government
The Bill of Rights does which of the following?
communicates what the federal government cannot do
Prior to the passage of the Bill of Rights, how many amendments were approved by Congress?
For the first half of the nation's history, the Bill of Rights protected citizens from which of the following?
the national government
The First Amendment protects which of the following liberties?
the liberties of religion, assembly, petition, and press (as well as speech).
Which of the following make up the First Amendment freedom of religion?
both the establishment clause AND the free exercise clause
The National Cathedral does not violate the First Amendment because it does not violate which of the following?
the establishment clause
How many criteria make up the Lemon test?
Which of the following criteria was violated in Lemon v. Kurtzman?
The government action may not result in excessive government entanglement in religion.
Which of the following fall into Stage 1 of the Sherbert test?
Does the government action pose a substantial burden to the person's ability to act on that belief?
Which of the following is considered a well-protected form of speech?
Which of the following is the most important post-1920s limitation on the freedom of political speech?
"revengeance" against the national government
The Citizens United decision expanded the Supreme Court's protection of political speech into which of the following arenas?
According to the relevant Supreme Court standard, less-protected forms of speech are those that do which of the following?
both fail to contribute to the public debate AND lack ideas that hold social value.
The Miller test is used as a standard to evaluate which form of speech?
Which type of speech "inflicts injury or tends to incite an immediate breach of the peace"?
An attempt by the government to block material before publication is known as which of the following?
According to the text, which form of freedom of assembly has the Supreme Court consistently found to be worthy of protection?
peaceful demonstrations in public spaces
The Fourth Amendment protects citizens from which of the following?
illegal examination and confiscation of property
Which of the following refers to the situation in which an otherwise invalid warrant is considered valid if the officer believed he was acting within the boundaries of the law?
a good-faith exception
Which of the following might be considered an "exigent circumstance"?
a threat to an individual's safety
The Fifth Amendment includes which of the following under its protections?
the right to due process of law, the right to a jury trial for certain crimes, protection against self-incrimination, and protection against loss of property.
Which of the following statements concerning double jeopardy is INCORRECT?
Double jeopardy protects an individual from being tried for the same crime in different jurisdictions.
Which of the following reflects a change in the interpretation of the Sixth Amendment from the past 50 years?
Poor defendants in felony cases are now provided counsel by the state.
Which of the following are considered rights guaranteed to the criminally accused by the Sixth Amendment?
The rights to an impartial jury, a jury composed of one's peers, counsel, and a speedy trial
The Eighth Amendment and the Court's interpretation of it protect the criminally accused from which of the following?
excessive bail, drawing and quartering, execution of juvenile persons, and excessive fines.
Which of the following represents an accurate statement regarding the death penalty?
Several states have placed a moratorium on the death penalty.
The idea of dual citizenship in the context of civil liberties refers to which of the following?
Americans being subject to both state and national protections
The 14th Amendment did which of the following?
reversed dual citizenship
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the freedom of religion?
Thomas Jefferson requested that his authorship of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom be listed on his tombstone.
Which of the following rights has NOT been incorporated?
the right to a jury trial in a civil case
Which of the following rights have NOT been fully incorporated or are of questionable incorporation?
both the right to bear arms AND no excessive bail and fines
When did the Court establish the trimester system to structure a woman's rights during pregnancy?
Roe v. Wade (1973)
In which case(s) did the Supreme Court clarify the restrictions that states may impose on abortion?
both Webster v. Reproductive Health Services AND Planned Parenthood v. Casey
The Supreme Court's ruling in Bowers v. Hardwick did which of the following?
found that states could restrict sexual activity unrelated to procreation
What was the Court's ruling in Lawrence v. Texas?
It extended the right to privacy to sexual conduct between consenting homosexual adults.
Oregon's Death with Dignity Act does which of the following?
allows physicians to prescribe lethal medication for terminally ill patients
The Supreme Court's rulings on the right to die tend toward which of the following?
supporting the autonomy of states in the area of physician-assisted suicide
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