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Chapter 6 - Project Schedule Management
Terms in this set (86)
Key Concepts for Project Schedule Management
Project scheduling provides a detailed plan that represents how and when the project will deliver the products, services, and results defined in the project scope and serves as a tool for communication, managing stakeholders' expectations, and a basis for performance reporting.
Project mgmt. team selects a scheduling method called critical path or an agile approach. Then the project-specific data, such as the activities planed dates, durations, resources, dependencies, and constraints, are entered into a scheduling tool to create a schedule model for the project. The result is a project schedule.
Plan Schedule Management
The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule. Key benefit is that it provides guidance and direction on how the project schedule will be managed throughout the project. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project.
Plan Schedule Management: Inputs (Project Charter)
The project charter defines the summary milestone schedule that will influence the management of the project schedule.
Plan Schedule Management: Inputs (Project Management Plan)
Scope management plan - Describes how the scope will be defined and developed, which will provide information on how the schedule will be developed.
Development approach - Will help define the scheduling approach, estimating techniques, scheduling tools, and techniques for controlling the schedule.
Plan Schedule Management: Inputs (E.E.F.)
Organizational culture and structure
Team resource availability and skills and physical resource availability.
Scheduling software and commercial databases, such as standardized estimating data.
Plan Schedule Management: Inputs (O.P.A.)
Historical information and lessons learned repositories.
Existing formal and informal schedule development, management and control related policies, procedures, and guidelines.
Guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization's set of standard processes and procedures to satisfy the specific needs of the project.
Templates and forms and monitoring and reporting tools.
Plan Schedule Management: Tools and Techniques (Expert Judgement)
Schedule development, management, and control
Scheduling software and the specific industry for which the project is developed.
Plan Schedule Management: Tools and Techniques (Data Analysis)
A data analysis technique that can be used for this process includes but is not limited to alternative analysis. Alternative analysis can include determining which schedule methodology to use, or how to combine various methods on the project.
Plan Schedule Management: Tools and Techniques (Meetings)
Project teams may hold planning meetings to develop the schedule management plan. Participants at these meetings may include project manager, project sponsor, selected project team members, stakeholders.
Plan Schedule Management: Outputs (Schedule Management Plan)
The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed, or broadly framed based on the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.
Define Activities is the process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables. Key benefit of this process is that is decomposes work packages into schedule activities that provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, monitoring, and controlling the project work. This process is performed throughout the project.
Define Activities: Inputs (Project Management Plan)
Schedule management plan: The schedule management plan defines the schedule methodology, the duration of waves for rolling wave planning, and the level of detail necessary to manage the work.
Scope baseline: The project WBS, deliverables, constraints, and assumptions documented in the scope baseline are considered explicitly while defining activities.
Define Activities: Inputs (E.E.F.)
Organizational cultures and structure
Published commercial information from commercial databases and project management information system (PMIS)
Define Activities: Inputs (O.P.A.)
Lessons learned repository containing historical information regarding activity lists by previous similar projects.
Templates that contain a standard activity list or portion of an activity list from a previous project and Existing formal and informal activity planning-related procedures, and guidelines such as the scheduling methodology.
Define Activities: Tools and Techniques (Expert Judgement)
Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge of similar past projects and the work being performed.
Define Activities: Tools and Techniques (Decomposition)
Decomposition is a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts. Activities represent the effort needed to complete a work package. The Define Activities process defines the final outputs as activities rather than deliverables, as done in the Create WBS Process.
Define Activities: Tools and Techniques (Rolling Wave Planning)
Rolling Wave Planning is an iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while work further is planned at a higher level. It is a form of progressive elaboration applicable to work packages, planning packages, and release planning when using an agile or waterfall approach.
Define Activities: Tools and Techniques (Meetings)
Meetings may be face-to-face, virtual, formal, or informal. Meetings may be held with team members or SME to define the activities needed to complete the work.
Define Activities: Outputs (Activity List)
The activity list includes the schedule activities required on the project. For projects that use rolling wave planning or agile techniques, the activity list will be updated periodically as the project progresses. The activity list includes an activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed.
Define Activities: Outputs (Activity Attributes)
Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time.
Define Activities: Outputs (Milestone List)
A milestone is a significant point or event in a project. A milestone list identifies all project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based on historical information.
Define Activities: Outputs (Change Requests)
Once the project has been baselined, the progressive elaboration of deliverables into activities may reveal work that was not initially part of the project baselines.
Define Activities: Outputs (Project Management Plan Updates)
Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization's change control process via a change request. Components:
Schedule baseline - Throughout the project, work packages are progressively elaborated into activities. This process may reveal work that was not part of the initial schedule baseline, necessitating a change to delivery dates or other significant schedule milestones that are part of the schedule baseline.
Cost baseline - Changes to the cost baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in schedule activities.
Sequence Activities is the process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities. The key benefit of this process is that it defines the logical sequence of work to obtain the greatest efficiency given all project constraints. This process is performed throughout the project.
Every activity except the first and last should be connected to at least one predecessor and at least one successor activity with an appropriate logical relationship.
Sequence Activities: Inputs (Project Management Plan)
Project Management Plan Components:
Schedule management plan: Defines the method used and the level of accuracy with other criteria required to sequence activities.
Scope baseline: The project WBS, deliverables, constraints, and assumptions documented in the scope baseline are considered explicitly while sequencing activities.
Sequence Activities: Inputs (Project Documents)
Activity attributes: Activity attributes may describe a necessary sequence of events or defined predecessor or successor relationships.
Activity list: The activity list contains all schedule activities required on the project that are to be sequenced.
Assumption log: Assumptions and constraints recored in the assumption log may influence the way activities are sequenced, the relationship between activities, and the need for leads and lags.
Milestone list: The milestone list may have scheduled dates for specific milestones, which may influence the way activities are sequenced.
Sequence Activities: Inputs (E.E.F.)
Government or industry standards
Project management information systems (PMIS)
Scheduling tools and Organization work authorization systems.
Sequence Activities: Inputs (O.P.A.)
Portfolio and program plans and project dependencies and relationships.
Existing formal and informal activity planning-related policies, procedures, and guidelines.
Templates that can be used to expedite the preparation of networks for project activities.
Lessons learned repository containing historical information.
Sequence Activities: Tools and Techniques (Precedence Diagramming Method)
The precedence diagramming method (PDM) is a technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.
Finish to start (FS) - Successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has finished. Example: installing an OS cannot start, until PC hardware is installed.
Finish to finish (FF) - Successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished. Example: Writing a document is required to finish, before editing the document can finish.
Start to Start (SS) - Successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started. Example: Level concrete (successor) cannot begin until pour foundation (predecessor) begins.
Start to Finish (SF) - Successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started. Example: A new accounts payable system (successor) has to start before the old accounts payable system can be shut down (predecessor)
FS is the most commonly used type of precedence relationship. The SF relationship is very rarely used, but is included to present a complete list of the PDM relationship types.
Sequence Activities: Tools and Techniques (Dependency Determination and Integration)
Dependencies may be characterized by the following attributes: mandatory or discretionary, internal or external. Dependency has four attributes:
Mandatory dependencies: Those that are legally, or contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work. Mandatory dependencies often involve physical limitations, such as construction project, where it is impossible to erect the superstructure until after the foundation has been built, or an electronics project, where a prototype has to be built before it can be tested.
Discretionary dependencies: Sometimes referred to as preferred logic, preferential logic, or soft logic. Discretionary dependencies are established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or some unusual aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired, even though there may be other acceptable sequences. For example, generally accepted best practices recommend that during construction, the electrical work should start after finishing the plumbing work.
External dependencies - Involve a relationship between project activities and non-project activities. These dependencies are usually outside of the project team's control. For example, the testing activity in a software project may be dependent on the delivery of hardware from an external source or governmental environmental hearings may need to be held before site preparation can begin on construction project.
Internal dependencies - Involve a precedence relationship between project activities and are generally inside the project team's control. For example, if the team cannot test a machine until they assemble it, there is an internal dependency.
Sequence Activities: Tools and Techniques (Leads and Lags)
A lead is the amount of time a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity. For example, on a project to construct a new office building, the landscaping could be scheduled to start 2 weeks prior to the scheduled punch list completion.
A lag is the amount of time a successor activity will be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity. For example, a technical writing team may begin editing the draft of a large document 15 days after they begin writing it. This can be shown as a start-to-start relationship with a 15-day lag. Lag can also be represented in project schedule network diagrams.
The project management team determines the dependencies that may require a lead or a lag to accurately define the logical relationship. The use of leads and lags should not replace schedule logic. Also duration estimates do not include any leads or lags. Activities and their related assumptions should be documented.
Sequence Activities: Tools and Techniques (Project Management Information System (PMIS)
Project management Information System includes scheduling software that has the capability to help plan, organize, and adjust the sequence of the activities; inset the logical relationships, lead and lag values; and differentiate the different types of dependencies.
Sequence Activities: Outputs (Project Schedule Network Diagrams)
A project schedule network diagram is a graphical representation of the logical relationships, also referred to as dependencies, among the project schedule activities. A project schedule network diagram is produced manually or by using project management software. It can include full project details, or have one or more summary activities.
Sequence Activities: Outputs (Project Documents Updates)
Activity attributes - Describe a necessary sequence of events or defined predecessor or successor relationships, as well as defined lead and lag and logical relationships between the activities.
Activity list - May be impacted by the change in relationships among the project activities during the sequencing activities.
Assumption log - Assumptions and constraints recorded in the assumption log may need to be updated based on the sequencing, relationship, determination, and leads and lags, and may give rise to individual project risks that may impact the project schedule.
Milestone list - The scheduled dates for specific milestones may be impacted by changes in relationships among the project activities during the sequencing activities.
Estimate Activity Durations
Estimate Activity Durations is the process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources. The key benefit of this process is that it provides the amount of time each activity will take to complete. The process is performed throughout the project.
Estimate Activity Durations: Input (Project Management Plan)
Project management plan components include:
Schedule management plan - the schedule management plan defines the method used, as well as the level of accuracy and other criteria required to estimate activity durations.
Scope baseline - The scope baseline includes the WBS dictionary, which contains technical details that can influence the effort and duration estimates.
Estimate Activity Durations: Input (Project Documents)
Lessons Learned register
Project team assignments
Resource breakdown structure
Estimate Activity Durations: Input (E.E.F)
Duration estimating databases and other reference data.
Published commercial information and location of team members.
Estimate Activity Durations: Input (O.P.A)
Historical duration information
Scheduling methodology and lessons learned repository.
Estimate Activity Durations: Tools and Techniques (Expert Judgment)
Schedule development, management, and control.
Expertise in estimating and discipline or application knowledge.
Estimate Activity Durations: Tools and Techniques (Analogous Estimating)
Analogous estimating is a technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project. Analogous estimating uses parameters from a previous, similar project, such as duration, budget, size, weight, and complexity, as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future project.
Analogous estimating is generally less costly and less time-consuming than other techniques, but it is also less accurate. Analogous duration estimates can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project and may be used in conjunction with other estimating methods.
Estimate Activity Durations: Tools and Techniques (Parametric Estimating)
Parametric estimating is an estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters. Parametric estimating uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables.
This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending on the sophistication and underlying data built into the model. Parametric schedule estimates can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project, in conjunction with other estimating methods.
Estimate Activity Durations: Tools and Techniques (Three-point estimating)
The accuracy of single-point duration estimates may be improved by considering estimation uncertainty and risk. Using three-point estimates helps define an approximate range for an activity's duration:
Most likely (tM). This estimate is based on the duration of the activity, given the resources likely to be assigned, their productivity, realistic expectations of availability for the activity, dependencies on their participants, and interruptions.
Optimistic (tO) The activity duration based on analysis of the best-case scenario for the activity.
Pessimistic (tP) The duration based on analysis of the worst-case scenario for the activity.
Depending on the assumed distribution of values within the range of the three estimates, the expected duration, (tE) can be calculated.
t(E) = (tO+tM+tP)/3
Estimate Activity Durations: Tools and Techniques (Bottom-Up Estimating)
Bottom-up estimating is a method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimate of the lower-level components of the WBS. When an activity's duration cannot be estimated with a reasonable degree of confidence the work within the activity is decomposed into more detail. The detail durations are estimated. These estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for each of the activity's durations.
Estimate Activity Durations: Tools and Techniques (Data Analysis)
Alternative analysis - Used to compare various levels of resource capability or skills, and make, rent, or buy decisions regarding the resources.
Reserve analysis - Used to determine the amount of contingency and management reserve needed for the project. Duration estimates may include contingency reserves, sometimes referred to as schedule reserve, to account for schedule uncertainty. Contingency reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted.
Estimate Activity Durations: Tools and Techniques (Decision Making)
Used in this process include but are not limited to voting. One variation of the voting method that is often used in agile-based projects is called the fist of five. In this technique, the project manager asks the team to show their level of support for a decision by holding up a closed fist (indicating no support) up to five fingers (indicating full support). If a team member holds up fewer than three fingers, the team member is given the opportunity to discuss any objectives with the team.
Estimate Activity Durations: Tools and Techniques (Meetings)
The project team may hold meetings to estimate activity durations. When using an agile approach, it is necessary to conduct sprint or iteration planning meetings to discuss prioritized product backlog items (user stories) and decided w which of these items the team will commit to work ion in the upcoming iteration.
Estimate Activity Durations: Outputs (Duration Estimates)
Duration estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely number of time periods that are required to complete an activity, a phase, or a project. Duration estimates do not include any lags. Duration estimates may include some indication of the range of possible results.
Estimate Activity Durations: Outputs (Basis of Estimates)
The amount and type of additional details supporting the duration estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the duration estimate was derived.
Supporting details may include:
Documentation of the bases of estimate, assumptions made, and any known constraints.
Indication of the range of possible estimates to indicate that the duration is estimated between a range of values.
Indication of the confidence level of the final estimate, and documentation of individual project risks influencing this estimate.
Estimate Activity Durations: Outputs (Project Documents Updates)
Lessons Learned register
Develop Schedule is the process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create a schedule model for project execution and monitoring and controlling. The key benefit of this process is that it generates a schedule model with planned dates for completing project activities. This process is performed throughout the project.
Developing an acceptable project schedule is an iterative process. The schedule model is used to determine the planned start and finish dates for project activities and milestones based on the best available information. Schedule development can required the review and revision of duration estimates, resource estimates, and schedule reserves to establish an approved project schedule that can serve as a baseline to track progress.
Develop Schedule: Inputs (Project Management Plan)
Schedule management plan: Identifies the scheduling method and tool used to create the schedule and how the schedule is to be calculated.
Scope baseline: The scope statement, WBS, and WBS dictionary have details about the project deliverables that are considered when building the schedule model.
Develop Schedule: Inputs (Project Documents)
Basis of estimates
project schedule network diagrams
project team assignments
Develop Schedule: Inputs (Agreements)
Vendors may have an input to the project schedule as they develop the details of how they will perform the project work to meet contractual commitments.
Develop Schedule: Inputs (E.E.F.)
Government or industry standards, and communication channels.
Develop Schedule: Inputs (O.P.A.)
Scheduling methodology containing the policies governing schedule model development and maintenance, and project calendars.
Develop Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Schedule Network Analysis)
Schedule network analysis is the overarching technique used to generate the project schedule model. It employs several other techniques such as critical path method, resource optimization techniques, and modeling techniques.
Assessing the need to aggregate schedule reserves to reduce the probability of a schedule slip when multiple paths coverage at a single point in time or when multiple paths diverge from a single point in time, to reduce the probability of a schedule slip.
Reviewing the network to see if the critical path has high-risk activities or long lead items that would necessitate use of schedule reserves or the implementation of risk responses to reduce the risk on the critical path.
Develop Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Critical Path Method)
The critical path method is used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of schedule flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model. The schedule network analysis technique calculates the early start, early finish, late start, and late finish dates for all activities without regard for any resource limitations by performing a forward and backward pass analysis through the schedule network.
The critical path is the sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project, which determines the shortest possible project duration. The longest path has the least total float --- usually zero. The resulting early and late start and finish dates are not necessarily the project schedule; rather they indicate the time periods within which the activity could be executed, using the parameters entered in the schedule model for activity durations, logical relationships, leads, lags, and other known constraints. The critical path method is used to calculate the critical path(s) and the amount of total and free float or schedule flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
Develop Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Resource Optimization)
Resource optimization is used to adjust the start and finish dates of activities to adjust planned resource use to be equal to or less than resource availability. Examples: that can be used to adjust the schedule model due to demand and supply of resources include:
Resource leveling - A technique in which start and finish dates are adjusted based on resource constraints with the goal of balancing the demand for resources with the available supply. Resource leveling can be used when shared or critically required resources are available only at certain times or in limited quantities, or are over-allocated, such as when a resource has been assigned to two or more activities during the same time period, or there is a need to keep resource usage at a constant level.
Resource smoothing - A technique that adjusts the activities of a schedule model such that the requirements for resources on the project do not exceed certain predefined resource limits. In resource smoothing, as opposed to resource leveling, the project's critical path is not changed and the completion date may not be delayed. Activities may only be delayed within their free and total float. Resource smoothing may not be able to optimize all resources.
Develop Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Data Analysis)
What-if scenario analysis - The process of evaluating scenarios in order to predict their effect, positive or negative, on project objectives. This is an analysis of the question, "What if the situation represented by scenario X happens?" A schedule network analysis is performed using the schedule to compute the different scenarios, such as delaying a major component delivery, extending specific engineering durations, or introducing external factors, such as a strike or a change in the permit process. The outcome of the what-f scenario analysis can be used to assess the feasibility of the project schedule under different conditions.
Simulation - Simulation models the combined effects of individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty to evaluate their potential impact on achieving project objectives. The most common simulation technique is Monte Carlo analysis.
Develop Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Leads and Lags)
Leads and lags are refinements applied during network analysis to develop a viable schedule by adjusting the start time of the successor activities. Leads are used in limited circumstances to advance a successor activity with respect to the predecessor activity, and lags are used in limited circumstances where processes require a set period of time to elapse between the predecessors and successors without work or resource impact.
Develop Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Schedule Compression)
Schedule compression techniques are used to shorten or accelerate the schedule duration without reducing the project scope in order to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule objectives.
Crashing - A technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources. Examples of crashing are approving overtime, bringing in additional resources, or paying to expedite delivery to activities on the critical path. Crashing works only for activities on the critical path where additional resources will shorten the activity's duration.
Fast tracking - A schedule compression technique in which activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration. Example: constructing the foundation for a building before completing all of the architectural drawings. Fast tracking may result in rework and increased risk. Fast tracking only works when activities can be overlapped to shorten the project duration on the critical path.
Develop Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Project Management Information System) (PMIS)
Project management information systems include scheduling software that expedites the process of building a schedule model by generating start and finish dates based on the inputs of activities, network, diagrams, resources, and activity durations.
Develop Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Agile Release Planning)
Agile release planning provides a high-level summary timeline of the release schedule (typically 3 to 6 months) based on the product roadmap and the product vision for the product's evolution. Agile release planning also determines the number of iterations or sprints in the release, and allows the product owner and team to decide how much needs to be developed and how long it will take to have a releasable product based on business goals, dependencies, and impediments.
Develop Schedule: Outputs (Schedule Baseline)
A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine if variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.
Develop Schedule: Outputs (Project Schedule)
The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan.
Bar charts - Also known as Gantt charts, bar charts represent schedule information where activities are listed on the vertical axis, dates are shown on the horizontal axis, and activity durations are shown as horizontal bars placed according to start and finish dates.
Milestone charts - These charts are similar to bar charts, but only identify the scheduled start or completion of major deliverables and key external interfaces. An example is the milestone schedule portion.
Project schedule network diagrams - These diagrams are commonly presented in the activity-on-node diagram format showing activities and relationships without a time scale, sometimes referred to as a pure logic diagram, or presented in a time-scaled schedule network diagram format that is sometimes called a logic bar chart. These diagrams, with activity date information, usually show both the project network logic and the project's critical path schedule activities.
Develop Schedule: Outputs (Schedule Data)
The schedule data for the project schedule model is the collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule. The schedule data includes the schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints. The amount of additional data varies by application area.
Resource requirements by time period, often in the form of a resource histogram.
Alternative schedules, such as best-case or worst-case.
Applied schedule reserves.
Schedule data could also include such items as resource histograms, cash-flow projections, order and delivery schedules, or other relevant information.
Develop Schedule: Outputs (Change Requests)
Modifications to the project scope or project schedule may result in change requests to the scope baseline, and /or other components of the project management plan. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process. Preventive actions may include recommended changes to eliminate or reduce the probability of negative schedule variances.
Develop Schedule: Outputs (Project Management Plan Updates)
Schedule management plan
Develop Schedule: Outputs (Project Documents Updates)
Lessons learned register
Control Schedule is the process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project schedule and managing changes to the schedule baseline. The key benefit of this process is that the schedule baseline is maintained throughout the project. The process is performed throughout the project.
Updating the schedule model requires knowing the actual performance to date. Any change to the schedule baseline can only be approved through the Perform Integrated Change Control process. Control Schedule, as a component of the Perform Integrated Change Control process is concerned with:
Determining the current status of the project schedule.
Influencing the factors that create schedule changes.
Reconsidering necessary schedule reserves.
Determining if the project schedule has changed and managing the actual changes as they occur.
Control Schedule: Inputs (Project Management Plan)
Schedule management plan
Performance measurement baseline
Control Schedule: Inputs (Project Documents)
Lessons learned register
Control Schedule: Inputs(Work Performance Data)
Work performance data contains data on project status such as which activities have started, their progress (e.g., actual duration, remaining duration, and physical percent complete), and which activities have finished.
Control Schedule: Inputs (O.P.A.)
Existing formal and informal schedule control-related policies, procedures, and guidelines.
Schedule control tools and Monitoring and Reporting methods to be used.
Control Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Data Analysis)
Earned Value Analysis: Schedule performance measurements such as schedule variance (SV) and schedule performance index (SPI) are used to assess the magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline.
Iteration burndown chart: This chart tracks the work that remains to be completed in the iteration backlog. It is used to analyze the variance with respect to an ideal burndown based on the work committed from iteration planning. A forecast trend line can be used to predict the likely variance at iteration completion and take appropriate actions during the course of the iteration. A diagonal line representing the ideal burndown and daily actual remaining work is then plotted. A trend line is then calculated to forecast completion based on remaining work.
What-if scenario analysis.
Control Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Critical Path Method)
Comparing the progress along the critical path can help determine schedule status. The variance on the critical path will have a direct impact on the project end date. Evaluating the progress of activities on near critical paths can identify schedule risk.
Control Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Project Mgmt. Information System)
PMIS include scheduling software that provides the ability to track planned dates versus actual dates, to report variances to and progress made against the schedule baseline, and to forecast the effects of changes to the project schedule model.
Control Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Resource Optimization)
Technique involve the scheduling of activities and the resources required by those activities while taking into consideration both the resource availability and the project time.
Control Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Leads and Lags)
Adjusting leads and lags is applied during network analysis to find ways to bring project activities that are behind into alignment with the plan. Example: a project constraint to construct a new office building, the landscaping can be adjusted to start before the exterior work of the building is completed by increasing the lead time in the relationship.
Control Schedule: Tools and Techniques (Schedule Compression)
Techniques are used to find ways to bring project activities that are behind into alignment with the plan by fast tracking or crashing the schedule for the remaining work.
Control Schedule: Outputs (Work Performance Information)
Work performance information includes information on how the project work is performing compared to the schedule baseline. Variances in the start and finish dates and the durations can be calculated at the work package level and control account level.
Control Schedule: Outputs (Schedule Forecasts)
Schedule updates are forecasts of estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project's future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. Forecast are updated and reissued based on work performance information provided as the project is executed.
Control Schedule: Outputs (Change Requests)
Schedule variance analysis, as well as reviews of progress reports, results of performance measures, and modifications to the project scope or project schedule, may result in change requests to the schedule baseline, scope baseline, and/or other components of the project management plan.
Control Schedule: Outputs (Project Management Plan Updates)
Schedule management plan
Performance measurement baseline.
Control Schedule: Outputs (Project Documents Updates)
Basis of estimates
Lessons Learned Register
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