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Honors Biology Final
Terms in this set (190)
As a cell becomes larger, its...
volume increases faster than its surface area
The rate at which wastes are produced by a cell partially depends on the cell's ______________.
After cell division, each daughter cell has...
a higher surface area/volume ratio than the parent cell
An advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is that sexual reproduction...
Provides genetic diversity
When during the cell cycle are chromosomes visible?
only during cell division
Which pair includes a phase of the cell cycle and a cellular process that occurs during that phase?
G2 phase, preparation for mitosis
What does interphase consist of?
G1, S, and G2 phases
During which phase(s) of mitosis are chromosomes (X shape) visible?
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase
During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the middle of the dividing cell?
What is the role of the spindle fibers during mitosis?
They help separate the chromosomes
During normal mitotic cell division, a parent cell that has four chromosomes will produce two daughter cells, each containing...
When cells are grown in a laboratory, which factor can stop normal cells from dividing?
Contact with other cells
In eukaryotic cells, the timing of the cell cycle is regulated by ____________.
During early development, all cells in th embryo of a multicellular organism are identical. Later on in development, the cells will become specialized through a process called _________________.
Why are stem cells important?
They have the potential to develop into other cell types.
Which of the following is a possible future benefit of stem cell research?
Reversing damage from a heart attack
True or false: As a cell's size increases, its ration of surface area to volume increases.
False, it decreases
True or false: The smaller a cell is, the more difficult it is for the cell to move enough nutrients and wastes across its cell membrane to maintain its normal functions.
True or false: An imaginary cubic cell with a side length of 10mm would have a ratio of surface area to volume of 6:10.
True or false: Most of a cell's growth takes place during the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
True or false: In eukaryotes, the spindle breaks down during prophase and re-forms during telophase.
True or false: During cytokinesis, a cell undergoing cell division finally splits into two daughter cells.
True or false: Stem cells taken from embryos are totipotent.
The larger a cell becomes, the ________ efficiently it is able to function.
During normal development, the cells between toes and fingers die by _______________, a process of programmed cell death.
In all forms of _______________, the diseased cells fail to respond to the signals that regulate growth and the cell cycle.
Adult skin cells can no longer become other types of cells because they have already undergone __________________.
Embryonic stem cells gathered form the inner cell mass of the blastocyst are called ____________ because they can develop into most, but not all human cell types.
Harvesting _______________ stem cells from a willing donor is not as controversial as harvesting techniques that involve the destruction of an embryo.
________________ is the term to describe a fertilized egg cell that results from the union of a female gamete with a male gamete.
__________________ is the development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from a primary site of cancer.
Tumors described as _________________ do not invade nearby tissue or spread to their parts of the body the way cancer can.
An animal embryo at the early stage of development when it is a hollow ball of cells is referred to as a ______________.
Nondisjunction is when...
genes are unequally distributed
Cell cycle stages
G1, S, G2, M (PMAT)
What happens in the G1 stage?
What happens in the S phase?
What happens in the G2 phase?
Check for readiness in M phase
What happens in the M phase?
Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase (info and organelles divided into two sides)
What happens in cytokinesis?
What are the stages in mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, telophase
What is the process called where part of a blastula is folded?
What does gastrulation do?
Regulates food/nutrients/waste, narrows out toxins
Where can a tumor cause long term effects?
In the brain or spinal cord
Stages of making a DNA helix
Chromatin, supercoiled DNA, individual protein, coil, double helix
A smaller tube of liquid takes a __________ time to diffuse.
What are three therapies used to treat cancer?
Radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery
When Gregor Mendel crossed true breeding tall plants with true-breeding short plants, why was it impossible to observe segregation?
Alleles in the F1 must be Tt to have height variety in the F2.
A heterozygous tall pea plant is crossed with a short plant. The probability that an F1 plant will be tall is...(percentage)
the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes
How many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes produced by a pea plant whose genotype was RrYY?
What is a phenotype?
Physical characteristics (Tall, short)
What is a genotype?
Genetic makeup (Tt, tt)
A man and female bison that are both heterozygous for normal skin pigmentation (Aa) produce an albino offspring (aa). Which of Mendel's principles explains why the offspring is albino?
Dominance and segregation
Roam cattle show codominance for the color of their hair. There are alleles for red hair and white hair. What would you expect a heterozygous roan bull to look like if the trait showed incomplete dominance instead?
It would be pink
Mixture of two characteristics
Both traits are displayed separately
A cross of a black chicken (BB) with a white chicken (WW) produces all speckled offspring (BBWW). This type of inheritance is known as...
What is an example of the fact that the environment can affect genetic traits?
Hydrangea flower color varies its soil pH.
The arctic fox is blue-gray in the summer and white in the winter. What most likely influences this change?
Genes and the environment
The number of chromosomes in a gamete is represented by the symbol...
If an organism's diploid number is 12, it's haploid number is...
one allele for each gene
Gametes are produced by the process of...
Chromosomes form tetrads during...
Prophase I of meiosis
What is formed at the end of meiosis?
four genetically different cells
What assorts independently out of chromosomes, linked genes, multiple alleles, and codominance alleles?
A human female inherits...
Two copies of every gene located on the X chromosome
How many chromosomes are shown in a normal human karyotype?
The formation of a Barr body inactivates...
One whole X chromosome in a female cell
A cat that has spots of more than one color...
Is probably female
Which pair of genotypes results in the same phenotype?
IBIB and IBi
The black symbols on a pedigree chart show...
If nondisjunction occurs during meiosis,...
Some gametes may have an extra copy of some genes
Identifying patterns of inheritance within a family over several generations is possible by studying a diagram called a...
In humans, the genetic disorder cause by an extra chromosome 21 is called...
The failure of replicated chromosomes to separate is called...
An organism has 38 chromosomes in a body cell. After mitosis each cell has 38 chromosomes. After meiosis each gamete has _________ chromosomes.
What is the probability of flipping a coin and getting heads 5 times in a row?
(1/2)^5 = 1/32
If pea plants that are homozygous for round, yellow seeds (RRYY) were crossed with pea plants that are heterozygous for round, yellow seeds (RrYy), the expected phenotypes of the offspring would be...
Round and yellow (polygenic)
The reddish-brown pigment that gives color to a fruit fly's eye is controlled by three genes, so a fruit fly's eye color is a...
Crossing over occurs during the stage of meiosis called...
Chromosome pairs 1-22 in a karyotype are referred to as ...
Monosomy xo is known as ______________ syndrome.
_________________ is a condition in which one gene can control the expression of another.
The term used to describe the 3 female gametes that do not reach full size and cannot be fertilized is...
Common phenotypic ratio
Two black X's in first stage of meiosis are...
During which stage of meiosis might new allele combinations form?
During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." Which statement is most likely to be helpful in correcting this student's misconception?
Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are generally not passed through genes
DDT was once considered a "silver bullet" that would permanently eradicate insect pests. Today, instead, DDT is largely useless against many insects. Which would have been required for this pest eradication effort to be successful in the long run?
None of the individual insects should have possessed genomes that made them resistant to DDT.
Which structure is homologous to the bones in the wing of a bird?
Bony rays in the tail fin of a flying fish
If the six ground finches have revolved most recently, then which is the most logical prediction?
Their genomes should be more similar to each other than are the genomes of the five tree finch species.
DNA sequences in many human genes are very similar to the sequences of corresponding genes in chimpanzees. The most likely explanation for this result is that...
Humans and chimpanzees share a relatively recent common ancestor.
Which statement about the beak size of finches on the island of Daphne Major during prolonged drought is true?
Each bird's survival was strongly influenced by the depth and strength of its beak as the drought persisted.
In the formula for determining a population's genotype frequencies, the pq in the term 2pq is necessary because...
Heterozygotes have two alleles
In a Hardy Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.3. What is the percentage of the population that is homozygous for this allele?
In peas, a gene controls flower color such that R=purple and r=white. In an isolated pea patch, there are 36 purple flowering plants and 64 white flowering plants. Assuming Hart Weinberg equilibrium, what is the value of q for this population?
If the original finches that had been blown over to the Galapagos from south America had already been genetically different from the parental population of south American finches, even before adapting To the Galapagos, this would have been an example of...
genetic drift and founder affect
What is true of natural selection?
Mutations occur at random; natural selection can preserve and distribute beneficial mutations
Which is most likely to produce an African butterfly species in the wild whose members have one of two strikingly different color patterns?
Most swiss starlings produce 4 to 5 eggs in each clutch. Starlings produce fewer, or more, then this have reduced fitness. Which of the following terms best describes this situation.
Natural selection acts directly on...
Three sources of genetic variation are...
Sexual reproduction, Lateral gene transfer, and mutations
If a mutation introduces a new skin color in a lizard population which factor might determine whether the frequency of the new allele will increase?
Whether the mutation makes some lizards more fit for their environment than other lizards.
The genetic equilibrium of a population can be disturbed by...
A large population size
What situation might develop in a population having some plants who's flowers open at mid day and other plants who's flowers open late in the day?
What did the grants learn about mate choice from the Galapagos finches?
Finches prefer mates with beaks similar in size to their own
In the grants study of the Galapagos finches, What process was encouraged by ecological competition during the dry season?
What do hox genes control?
Patterns of embryological development
Which of the following ideas is supported by Darwins observation of local variation among tortoises in the Galapagos islands?
In an experiment, suppose that the wings of fruit flies were clipped short for 50 generations. The 51st generation emerged with normal length wings. This observation with tend to disapprove the idea that evolution is based on...
Inheritance of acquired characteristics
Darwin realized that the economist Malthus's theory of population control...
Could be generalized to any population of organisms
According to Darwins theory of natural selection, the individuals that tend to survive are those that have...
Variations best suited to environmental conditions
Bio geography is the study of...
Where species and their ancestors live
Molecular evidence in support of natural selection includes...
The nearly universal genetic code
What principal does the grants investigation of Finch adaptation in the Galapagos islands best support?
When Charles Darwin returned from the voyage of the beagle, he...
Wrote about his ideas but waited many years to publish them
Why might Darwin have hesitated to publish his concept of evolution by natural selection?
He was disturbed by his findings, which challenged fundamental scientific beliefs
A change in a sequence of DNA is called...
According to the Hardy Weinberg principle genetic equilibrium would be more likely in a population of mice if...
No natural selection takes place
Why is embryology a good indicator of evolution?
The embryos of various groups of vertebrates all share the same features of early development suggesting an evolutionary relationship.
A ___________ is all of the genes that are present in a particular population.
According to the _____________ principle, allele frequencies in a population can be disturbed by one or more of five conditions.
When researchers use a molecular clock, they can estimate the time since two organisms shared a __________.
Charles Darwin realized that the measure of success for an organism was not only a long period of survival but also ___________.
The geologist _____________ proposed that past changes in Earth must be explained in terms of events and processes observable today.
List the five conditions necessary to maintain genetic equilibrium in a population.
No natural selection, no immigration or emigration, no small population, no mutations, and no natural selection
What are the three mechanisms for reproductive isolation?
Temporal isolation, behavioral isolation, and geographic isolation
What mechanism isolates two populations of similar frogs with different mating calls?
In fishes, pharyngeal pouches may develop into _____________.
The notochord is responsible for which function in an embryo?
Which chordate characteristic is visible on the outside of an adult cat?
A tail that extends beyond the anus
True body cavity
No body cavity
Body cavity partially lined with mesoderm
In an animal that is bilaterally symmetrical, which two halves mirror each other?
The left and right sides
An animal that has body parts that extend outward from its center shows...
The difference between a protostome and a deuterostome is that...
The blastopore in a deuterostome develops into the animal's anus
Four types of animal tissue are...
Nervous, epithelial, muscle, and connective
Which animal diffuses oxygen and carbon dioxide through its body covering?
The term for giving birth to live young is being ______________.
________________ are a class of invertebrates that exhibit three germ layers, cephalization, and bilateral symmetry, but do not have coelems.
Although they are radially symmetrical, echinoderms are more closely related to a human than to a jellyfish because they are ___________.
__________________ is a middle germ layer; develops into muscles, and much of the circulatory, reproductive, and excretory systems.
_______________ is referred to as the concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the anterior end of an animal.
Invertebrates such as sea stars and sand dollars that are characterized by a spiny endoskeleton, radial symmetry as adults, and a water vascular system. This phylum is known as:
A/an ____________ is a hollow ball of cells that develops when a zygote undergoes a series of cell divisions.
There are 2 different forms of phylum Cnidaria. _____________ are usually sessile, mouth and tentacles point up. __________ however Are motile, mouth and tentacles point down.
List the three subtypes of mammals.
Marsupials, monotremes, placentals
First group to show cephalization...
List all the vertebrate groups that have or can have "egg layers".
Birds, reptiles, mammals
First group to utilize internal fertilization AND development is:
List all invertebrate groups that are deuterostome.
First group with one way digestive tube
List the four directions of an animal.
Anterior, posterior, dorsal, ventral
What are the sections of a spider's body?
Segmented legs, cephalothorax, abdomen
A "bisexual gametophyte" is responsible for egg and sperm production for ____________.
In angiosperm fertilization, a triploid cell that eventually becomes _____________ is produced by a second fertilization event.
In a flower's stamen, the filament is topped by a __________?
Angiosperm seeds are surrounded by a mature ovary called a _____________.
The life cycle of a plant shifts between a ______________ and a ____________ phase.
The growing tip of a climbing vine exhibits _________________ when it coils around a stake.
The growth of plant seedlings is usually...
Phototropic and gravitropic
In angiosperms, a zygote and endosperm form as a result of...
Bryophytes must live in moist areas because they lack vascular tissue. For what other reason do they need to live in moist areas?
The sperm of bryophytes need water to swim to an egg.
What is the one reason that vascular plants are larger than non vascular plants?
Vascular tissue carries water and nutrients much more efficiently than can be carried by diffusion.
The ancestors of land plants likely evolved from...
An organism similar to green algae
In seed plants, the entire male gametophyte is contained in a...
Water will move higher in a narrow glass tube than it will move in a wide glass tube because of...
Vascular plants are able to grow taller than nonvascular plants because...
Lignin in the cell walls of vascular tissue helps the plant overcome the gravity
Where would you most likely find mosses growing?
Shaded ground near a small pond
What is a basic difference between a sporophyte and a gametophyte?
A sporophyte is part of the diploid phase while a gametophyte is part of the haploid phase plant life cycle
The outer covering of a plants consists of....
A pollen grain landing on a stigma of a flower of the same species produces a...
Which of the following correctly relates an angiosperm structure and what it develops into?
Seed bearing plants differ from all other plants in that...
They have true roots, stems, and leaves
A new plant is discovered. This plant has leaves with branched veins, a taproot, and stems made primarily of cells with thick cell walls, which means it is...
A woody plant
The number of seed leaves distinguishes...
Two groups of angiosperms
The gametophytes of gymnosperms are found inside reproductive structures called...
Oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of a leaf through the...
During pollination in seed plants, pollen grains...
Are carried to female reproductive structures by wind or animals
Which are not a female structure of a flower?
Filament and anther
Unlike dicot, a monocot has...
Parallel leaf veins
One of the three main functions of stems is to...
Carry water and nutrients between roots and leaves
Angiosperms produce seeds inside protective structures called...
Angiosperms produce seeds inside protective structures called...
Because bryophytes do not have vascular tissue, they...
Grow close to the ground
Parallel leaf veins, evenly distributed circles, tiny bristles
Outward leaf veins, about five petals, concentrated circles in the middle, taproot
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