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Microbiology test 1

Terms in this set (42)

Microscope developments:
1590 Zaccharias Janssen - Dutch spectacle maker, invents the first compound microscope
1600-
1660 Robert Hooke - Englishman explores non-living and living matter with compound microscope
1676 Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek - Dutch linen merchant, uses own simple microscope to observe bacteria and protozoa in a drop of water - calls them little "beasties"
(1668-1858) - The Downfall of Spontaneous Generation
1668 Francesco Redi - Italian naturalist, begins testing hypothesis of biogenesis = meat and amaggots (Two jars, one jar with meat was covered with a net, the other without a net. The one without the net developed maggots because flies could land on the meat and lay the very small eggs.
John Needham - Sheep Mutton broth - sterile broth became cloudy without inoculating - supports spontaneous generation.
Louis Jablot - Hay Infusions - covered and uncovered were used in a similar fashion as Redi - disputes spontaneopus generation.
1700-
1776 Lazzaro Spallanzani, Italian anatomist, heats the air going into the flask - it stays sterile, further disputes spontaneous generation
1796 Edward Jenner - English surgeon, develops vaccination for smallpox
1800- (1st Golden Age of Microbiology - Prevention of Disease and Identifying Causative Agents of Disease 1858 - 1918)
1839 Theodor Schwann - German zoologist, and Metthias Schleiden, a botanist, formalize the cell theory.
1847-1850 Ignaz Semmelweiss - Hungarian physician, theorizes that doctors transmit childbef fever to mother during childbirth process and institutes the use of antiseptics to reduce hand-borne disease.
1861 Louis Pasteur - completes experiments that disprove spontaneous generation.
1867 Joseph Lister - English surgeon, publishes paper on antiseptic surgery, begins trend toward modern antiseptic techniques in medicine.
1876-1877 Robert Koch - German bacteriologist, identifies the causative agent of anthrax as Bacillus anthracis
1881 Pasteur - develops vaccine for anthrax
1881 Koch - develops pure culture techniques for handling bacteria in the laboratory
1881 Walther and Fanny Hesse- introduce agar-agar as a solidifying gel for culture media.
1882 Koch - identifies the causative agent of tuberculosis.
1884 Koch - outlines his postulates.
1884 Hans Christian Gram - devises Gram stain technique to differentiate between types of bacteria
1885 Pasteur - develops vaccine for rabies.
1892 D. Ivanovski - first to isolate a virus and show it could be transmitted in cell-free filtrate
Summary of Pasteur vs. Koch
Louis Pasteur - French bacteriologist, Swan necked flask does not heat the air going in - microbes can get the air they need if they are able to come in contact with the broth, finally disputes spontaneous generation. Also shows that fermentation is due to microorganisms and originates the process of pasteurization. Other contributions include: discovering the microbial role in making of wine and beer, pasteurization technique, and vaccination for rabies.
Robert Koch - Developed "Koch's Postulates" - methodology to determine the causative agent of diseases . Many etiological agents were determined during the next 30 years. Other Contributions include determining the causative agent for Anthrax and Tuberculosis. His lab also developed many techniques such as the Abbe Condensor and Agar.
1900- End of 1st Golden Age of Microbiology, 2nd Golden Age of Microbiology - age of Antibiotics (treatment)( 1928-1979), 3rd Golden Age of Microbiology - Age of Molecular Genetics (1979-present)
1908 Paul Erchlich - German , modern pioneer in chemotherapy - developed salvarsan to treat syphilis.
1929 Alexander Fleming - Scottish bacteriologist, discovered and describes the properties of the first antibiotic - penicillin
1933 -1938 Ernst Ruska and von Borries - develop the first electron microscope
1935 Gerhard Domagk - German physician, discovers first sulfa drug and paves the way for modern antimicrobic chemotherapy
1941 Howard Florey and Ernst Chain - develop commercial methods for purification of penicillin and it is put into widespread use
1953 James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, and Maurice Wilkins - determine the structure of DNA
1954 Jonas Salk - develops first polio vaccine
1972 Paul Berg - develops the first recombinant DNA in a test tube
1973 Herb Boyer and Stanley Cohen - Clone the first DNA using plamids
1979 Genetically engineered insulin is first synthesized by bacteria
1983 Isolation and characterization of HIV by French (Luc Montagnier) and American (Robert Gallo)
1983 Kerry Mullis - develops Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
1989 Cancer causing genes called oncogenes are characterized
1996 Dr. David Ho - develops "cocktail" of drugs to treat AIDS
1997 First cloned mammal from an adult nuclei
2000- Continuing 3rd Golden Age of Microbiology
2000 - Rough version of human genome is mapped (years earlier than once thought)
2001 - Anthrax outbreak
2003 - New Roles for RNA molecules discovered
2006 - New vaccine for HPV is introduced - first ever "Anti-cancer" vaccine
Pay attention to bold printed ones - especially the ones related to the microscope, disproving spontaneous generation, Koch, and Pasteur.