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immunity that is a result of the body developing the ability to defend itself against a specific agent, as a result of having had the disease or from having received an immunization against a disease
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Clinical conditions that destroy the body's immune system in the last or final phase of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which primarily damages helper T cell lymphocytes with CD4 receptors
masses of lymphatic tissue located near the opening of the nasal cavity into the pharynx, also called the pharyngeal tonsils
clumping of cells as a result of interaction w/specific antibodies called agglutins. Agglutinins are used in blood typing and in identifying or estimating the strength of immunoglobulin's or immune serums
exaggerated, life threatening hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered antigen
describes a condition in which there is decrease in hemoglobin in the blood to levels below the normal range, resulting in deficiency of oxygen being delivered to cells
abnormal condition of the blood characterized by red blood cells of variable and abnormal size
substances produced by the body in response to bacteria, viruses, or other foreign substances, each class of antibody named for its action
substance, usually protein that causes the formation of an antibody and reacts specifically w/that antibody
abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of a fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes
granulocytic white blood cell characterized by cytoplasmic granules that stain blue when exposed to a basic dye, represent 1% or less of the total white blood cell count
orange yellow pigment of bile formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells after termination of their normal life span
denoting a cell, tissue, or microorganism that is easily stained, particularly certain leukocytes
large species specific herpes type virus with a variety of disease effects, causes serious illness in persons with AIDS, newborns, and in individuals who are being treated with immunosuppressive drugs
process in development in which unspecialized cells or tissues are systemically modified and altered to achieve specific and characteristic physical forms, physiologic functions and chemical properties
Direct antiglobulin test
used to discover the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies present in the blood of an Rh-negative woman
abnormal condition of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukemia, aplastic anemia or prenatal Rh incompatibility
abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissue; accumulation of fluid w/in the tissue spaces
movement of charged suspended particles through a liquid medium in response to changes in an electric field
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.
granulocytic, bilobed leukocyte somewhat larger than a neutrophil characterized by large numbers of coarse, refractile, cytoplasmic granules that stain with the acid dye eosin
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
a measure of the settling of red blood cells in a tube of blood during one hour. The rate is an indication of inflammation and increases in many diseases.
hormone synthesized mainly in the kidneys and released into the bloodstream in response to anoxia, the hormone acts to stimulate and regulate the production of erythrocytes and is thus able to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
group of four globulin protein molecules that become bound by the iron in heme molecules to form hemoglobin
abnormally elevated number of granulocytes in the circulating blood as a reaction to any variety of inflammation or infection
pigmented iron containing non protein portion of the hemoglobin molecule, binds w/and carries oxygen in the red blood cells, releasing it to tissues that give off excess amounts of carbon dioxide
rare iron metabolism disease characterized by iron deposits throughout the body, usually as a complication of one of the hemolytic anemias
complex protein iron compound in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from the cells to the lungs
A record of the findings from an examination of the blood, especially with reference to the numbers, proportions, and morphological features of the formed elements.
involves different hereditary inadequacies of coagulation factors resulting in prolonged bleeding times
termination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means or by the complex coagulation process of the body, consisting of vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation and thrombin and fibrin synthesis
excessive level of blood fats, usually caused by a lipoprotein lipase deficiency or a defect in the conversion of low-density lipoproteins to high density lipoproteins
syndrome involving a deficiency of one or more types of blood cells and an enlarged spleen
defense function of the body that produces antibodies to destroy invading antigens and malignancies
The branch of biomedicine that is concerned with the structure and function of the immune system, innate and acquired immunity, and laboratory techniques involving the interaction of antigens with antibodies.
special treatment of allergic responses that administers increasingly large doses of the offending allergens to gradually develop immunity
denoting or relating to a solution having the same osmotic pressure as some other solution, esp. one in a cell or a body fluid.
locally destructive malignant neoplasm of the blood vessels associated with AIDS, typically forming lesions on the skin, visceral organs or mucous membranes. These lesions appear initially as tiny red to purple macules and evolve into sizable nodules or plaques
a normoblast, or developing red blood cell, with a nucleus condensed into a homogenous staining body. It is normally found in the red bone marrow.
excessive uncontrolled increases of immature WBC in the blood eventually leading to infection, anemia and thrombocytopenia
abnormal decrease in the number of white blood cells to fewer than 5000 cell per cubic millimeter
interstitial fluid picked up by the lymphatic capillaries and eventually returned to the blood, once the interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic vessels, it is known as lymph
small, a granulocytic leukocytes originating from fetal stem cells and developing in the bone marrow
lymphoid tissue neoplasm that is typically malignant, beginning w/a painless enlarged lymph node and progressing to anemia, weakness, and fever and weight loss
any phagocytic cell involved in the defense against infection and in the disposal of the products of the breakdown of cells
usually caused by the Epstein Barr virus, typically is benign, self-limiting acute infection of the B lymphocytes
The branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of organisms without consideration of function.
malignant plasma cell neoplasm, causes an increase in the number of both mature and immature plasma cells, which often replace the bone marrow and destroy the skeletal structure
autoimmune disease in which antibodies block or destroy some acetylcholine receptor sites
the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth.
a disease in which the red blood cells are abnormally formed, due to an inability to absorb vitamin B12
any cell that ingests microorganisms or other cells and foreign particles, such as a microphage, macrophage, or monocyte
watery, straw colored fluid portion of the lymph and the blood in which the leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets are suspended
abnormal increase in the number of RBC, granulocytes, and thrombocytes leading to an increase in blood volume and thickness
plasma protein precursor of thrombin, synthesized in the liver if adequate vitamin K is present
blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and extrinsic system of clot formation
collection of blood underneath the skin in the form of pinpoint hemorrhages appearing as red purple skin discoloration
Red blood cell morphology
examination of RBC on a stained blood smear that enables the examiner to identify the form and shape of the RBC's
immature erythrocyte characterized by a mesh like pattern of threads and particles at the former site of the nucleus
measurement of the number of circulating reticulocytes, immature erythrocytes in a blood specimen
aggregation of RBC's viewed through the microscope that may be an artifact or may occur with persons with multiple myeloma as a result of abnormal proteins
systemic inflammatory disease resulting in the formation of multiple small, rounded lesions in the lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, liver and other organs
systemic infection in which pathogens are present in the circulating bloodstream, having spread from an infection in any part of the body
change in serologic tests from negative to positive as antibodies develop in reaction to an infection or vaccine
branch of lab medicine that studies blood serum for evidence of infection by evaluating antigen-antibody reaction
clear, thin, sticky fluid portion of the blood that remains after coagulation, contains no blood cells, platelets or fibrinogen
hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the alpha or beta hemoglobin chains are defective and the production of hemoglobin is deficient, creating hypochromic microcytic RBC
enzyme formed from prothrombin, calcium, thromboplastin in plasma during the clotting process, causes fibrinogen to change to fibrin, which is essential to formation of clot
complex substance that initiates the clotting process by converting prothrombin and thrombin in the presence of calcium ion
masses of lymphatic tissue located in a protective ring, just under the mucous membrane, surrounding the mouth and the back of the throat
an adaptation of the Southern blot procedure, used to identify specific amino-acid sequences in proteins.
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