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137 terms

Chapter 9: The Blood and Lymphatic System

Comprehensive Medical Terminology 4th edition by Betty Davis Jones
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Acquired immunity
immunity that is a result of the body developing the ability to defend itself against a specific agent, as a result of having had the disease or from having received an immunization against a disease
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Clinical conditions that destroy the body's immune system in the last or final phase of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which primarily damages helper T cell lymphocytes with CD4 receptors
Adenoids
masses of lymphatic tissue located near the opening of the nasal cavity into the pharynx, also called the pharyngeal tonsils
Agglutination
clumping of cells as a result of interaction w/specific antibodies called agglutins. Agglutinins are used in blood typing and in identifying or estimating the strength of immunoglobulin's or immune serums
Albumin
plasma protein, helps maintain blood volume and pressure
Allergen
substance that can produce a hypersensitive reaction in the body
Allergy
hypersensitive reaction to normally harmless antigens, most of which are environmental
Anaphylaxis
exaggerated, life threatening hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered antigen
Anemia
describes a condition in which there is decrease in hemoglobin in the blood to levels below the normal range, resulting in deficiency of oxygen being delivered to cells
Anisocytosis
abnormal condition of the blood characterized by red blood cells of variable and abnormal size
Antibodies
substances produced by the body in response to bacteria, viruses, or other foreign substances, each class of antibody named for its action
Antigens
substance, usually protein that causes the formation of an antibody and reacts specifically w/that antibody
Aplastic anemia
condition in which the bone marrow does not make enough new blood cells
Ascites
abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of a fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes
Basophil
granulocytic white blood cell characterized by cytoplasmic granules that stain blue when exposed to a basic dye, represent 1% or less of the total white blood cell count
Bilirubin
orange yellow pigment of bile formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells after termination of their normal life span
Blastocyte
An undifferentiated blastomere of the morula or the blastula stage of an embryo.
Chromophilic
denoting a cell, tissue, or microorganism that is easily stained, particularly certain leukocytes
Coagulation
process of transforming a liquid into a solid
Corpuscle
any cell of the body, a red or white blood cell
Cytogenesis
The formation, development, and variation of cells
Cytomegalovirus
large species specific herpes type virus with a variety of disease effects, causes serious illness in persons with AIDS, newborns, and in individuals who are being treated with immunosuppressive drugs
Differentiation
process in development in which unspecialized cells or tissues are systemically modified and altered to achieve specific and characteristic physical forms, physiologic functions and chemical properties
Direct antiglobulin test
used to discover the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies present in the blood of an Rh-negative woman
Dyscrasia
abnormal condition of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukemia, aplastic anemia or prenatal Rh incompatibility
Edema
abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissue; accumulation of fluid w/in the tissue spaces
Electrophoresis
movement of charged suspended particles through a liquid medium in response to changes in an electric field
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.
Eosinophil
granulocytic, bilobed leukocyte somewhat larger than a neutrophil characterized by large numbers of coarse, refractile, cytoplasmic granules that stain with the acid dye eosin
Eosinophilia
An increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood
Erythremia
abnormal increase in the number of the red blood cells
Erythroblast
immature red blood cell
Erythrocytes
red blood cells
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
a measure of the settling of red blood cells in a tube of blood during one hour. The rate is an indication of inflammation and increases in many diseases.
Erythrocytopenia
a condition characterized by a deficiency or decrease in number of erythrocytes
Erythrocytosis
An abnormal increase in the number of circulating red blood cells
Erythropoiesis
process of red blood cell production
Erythropoietin
hormone synthesized mainly in the kidneys and released into the bloodstream in response to anoxia, the hormone acts to stimulate and regulate the production of erythrocytes and is thus able to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
Fibrin
stringy, insoluble protein that is the substance of a blood clot
Fibrinogen
plasma protein converted into fibrin by thrombin in the presence of calcium ions
Globin
group of four globulin protein molecules that become bound by the iron in heme molecules to form hemoglobin
Globulin
plasma protein made in the liver, helps in the synthesis of antibodies
Granulocyte
type of leukocyte characterized by the presence of cytoplasmic granules
Granulocytosis
abnormally elevated number of granulocytes in the circulating blood as a reaction to any variety of inflammation or infection
Hematocrit
assessment of RBC percentage in the total blood volume
Hematologist
A person who specializes in the study of blood
Hematology
study of blood
Heme
pigmented iron containing non protein portion of the hemoglobin molecule, binds w/and carries oxygen in the red blood cells, releasing it to tissues that give off excess amounts of carbon dioxide
Hemochromatosis
rare iron metabolism disease characterized by iron deposits throughout the body, usually as a complication of one of the hemolytic anemias
Hemoglobin
complex protein iron compound in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from the cells to the lungs
Hemogram
A record of the findings from an examination of the blood, especially with reference to the numbers, proportions, and morphological features of the formed elements.
Hemolysis
the breaking open of red blood cells
Hemolytic
Destructive to red blood cells; hematolytic.
Hemophilia
involves different hereditary inadequacies of coagulation factors resulting in prolonged bleeding times
Hemorrhage
a loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time
Hemostasis
termination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means or by the complex coagulation process of the body, consisting of vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation and thrombin and fibrin synthesis
Heparin
naturally occurring anticlotting factor present in the body
Hyperalbuminemia
increased level of albumin in the blood
Hyperlipemia
excessive level of blood fats, usually caused by a lipoprotein lipase deficiency or a defect in the conversion of low-density lipoproteins to high density lipoproteins
Hyperlipidemia
aka hyperlipemia
Hypersensitivity
abnormal condition characterized by an excessive reaction to a particular stimuli
Hypersensitivity
tissue damage resulting from exaggerated immune response
Hypersplenism
syndrome involving a deficiency of one or more types of blood cells and an enlarged spleen
Immune reaction
defense function of the body that produces antibodies to destroy invading antigens and malignancies
Immunity
state of being resistant to or protected from a disease
Immunization
the process of rendering a subject immune, or of becoming immune.
Immunodeficiency
a group of disorders in which part of the immune system is missing or defective.
Immunology
The branch of biomedicine that is concerned with the structure and function of the immune system, innate and acquired immunity, and laboratory techniques involving the interaction of antigens with antibodies.
Immunologist
A person who specializes in the study of immunology
Immunotherapy
special treatment of allergic responses that administers increasingly large doses of the offending allergens to gradually develop immunity
Isotonic
denoting or relating to a solution having the same osmotic pressure as some other solution, esp. one in a cell or a body fluid.
Kaposi's sarcoma
locally destructive malignant neoplasm of the blood vessels associated with AIDS, typically forming lesions on the skin, visceral organs or mucous membranes. These lesions appear initially as tiny red to purple macules and evolve into sizable nodules or plaques
Karyocyte
a normoblast, or developing red blood cell, with a nucleus condensed into a homogenous staining body. It is normally found in the red bone marrow.
Leukemia
excessive uncontrolled increases of immature WBC in the blood eventually leading to infection, anemia and thrombocytopenia
Leukocyte
white blood cell, one of the formed elements of the circulating blood system
Leukocytopenia
abnormal decrease in the number of white blood cells to fewer than 5000 cell per cubic millimeter
Lipid profile
measures lipids in the blood
Lymph
interstitial fluid picked up by the lymphatic capillaries and eventually returned to the blood, once the interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic vessels, it is known as lymph
Lymphadenitis
infection of the lymph nodes
Lymphadenopathy
any disorder of the lymph nodes or lymph vessels, characterized by enlargement
Lymphangiogram
a radiographic visualization of a part of the lymphatic system.
Lymphocyte
small, a granulocytic leukocytes originating from fetal stem cells and developing in the bone marrow
Lymphoma
lymphoid tissue neoplasm that is typically malignant, beginning w/a painless enlarged lymph node and progressing to anemia, weakness, and fever and weight loss
Macrophage
any phagocytic cell involved in the defense against infection and in the disposal of the products of the breakdown of cells
Megakaryocyte
extremely large bone marrow cell
Monocyte
large mononuclear leukocyte
Monocytopenia
An abnormally low number of monocytes in the blood
Mononucleosis
usually caused by the Epstein Barr virus, typically is benign, self-limiting acute infection of the B lymphocytes
Morphology
The branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of organisms without consideration of function.
Multiple myeloma
malignant plasma cell neoplasm, causes an increase in the number of both mature and immature plasma cells, which often replace the bone marrow and destroy the skeletal structure
Myasthenia gravis
autoimmune disease in which antibodies block or destroy some acetylcholine receptor sites
Myeloblast
An immature cell of the bone marrow that is the precursor of a myelocyte.
Myeloid
of or pertaining to the bone marrow or spinal cord
Natural immunity
immunity with which we are born
Neutrophil
polymorph nuclear granular leukocyte that stains easily with neutral dyes
Nucleus
the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth.
Pancytopenia
marked reduction in the number of the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
Pathogens
disease producing microorganism
Pernicious anemia
a disease in which the red blood cells are abnormally formed, due to an inability to absorb vitamin B12
Phagocyte
any cell that ingests microorganisms or other cells and foreign particles, such as a microphage, macrophage, or monocyte
Phagocytosis
process of a cell engulfing and destroying bacteria
Plasma
watery, straw colored fluid portion of the lymph and the blood in which the leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets are suspended
Platelet
clotting cell, a thrombocyte
Pneumocystis carinil pneumonia
caused by a common worldwide parasite
Poikilocytosis
presence in the blood of erythrocytes showing abnormal variation in shape
Polycythemia
too many RBC's
Polycythemia Vera
abnormal increase in the number of RBC, granulocytes, and thrombocytes leading to an increase in blood volume and thickness
Prothrombin
plasma protein precursor of thrombin, synthesized in the liver if adequate vitamin K is present
Prothrombin time
blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and extrinsic system of clot formation
Purpura
collection of blood underneath the skin in the form of pinpoint hemorrhages appearing as red purple skin discoloration
Red blood cell morphology
examination of RBC on a stained blood smear that enables the examiner to identify the form and shape of the RBC's
Reticulocyte
immature erythrocyte characterized by a mesh like pattern of threads and particles at the former site of the nucleus
Reticulocyte count
measurement of the number of circulating reticulocytes, immature erythrocytes in a blood specimen
Rouleaux
aggregation of RBC's viewed through the microscope that may be an artifact or may occur with persons with multiple myeloma as a result of abnormal proteins
Sarcoidosis
systemic inflammatory disease resulting in the formation of multiple small, rounded lesions in the lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, liver and other organs
Septicemia
systemic infection in which pathogens are present in the circulating bloodstream, having spread from an infection in any part of the body
Seroconversion
change in serologic tests from negative to positive as antibodies develop in reaction to an infection or vaccine
Serology
branch of lab medicine that studies blood serum for evidence of infection by evaluating antigen-antibody reaction
Serum
clear, thin, sticky fluid portion of the blood that remains after coagulation, contains no blood cells, platelets or fibrinogen
Sickle cell anemia
sickle hemoglobin
Sideroblast
a nucleated erythrocyte containing iron granules in its cytoplasm
Spheroid
Having a generally spherical shape
Spherocytosis
the presence of spherocytes in the blood
Splenomegaly
abnormal enlargement of the spleen
Stem cell
formative cell, whose daughter cells may give rise to other cell types
Susceptible
state of having a lack of resistance to pathogens and other harmful agents
T cells
cells important to the immune response
Thalassemia
hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the alpha or beta hemoglobin chains are defective and the production of hemoglobin is deficient, creating hypochromic microcytic RBC
Thrombin
enzyme formed from prothrombin, calcium, thromboplastin in plasma during the clotting process, causes fibrinogen to change to fibrin, which is essential to formation of clot
Thrombocyte
clotting cell, a platelet
Thrombocytopenia
abnormal hematologic condition in which the number of platelets is reduced
Thromboplastin
complex substance that initiates the clotting process by converting prothrombin and thrombin in the presence of calcium ion
Thrombosis
the formation or presence of a clot
Thrombus
a clot
Tonsils
masses of lymphatic tissue located in a protective ring, just under the mucous membrane, surrounding the mouth and the back of the throat
Western Blot
an adaptation of the Southern blot procedure, used to identify specific amino-acid sequences in proteins.
White blood cell differential
measurement of the percentage of each specific type of circulating WBC present in 1mm3 of peripheral blood drawn for the WBC count