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AP euro Napoleon
Terms in this set (71)
A form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people. These people could be distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, education, corporate, or military control.
Admiral Hiratio Nelson
He was a flag officer, famous for his service in the royal navy, particulary during the Napoleonic Wars. He was noted for his inspirational leadership and superb grasp stategy and inconventional tactics, which resulted in a number of decisive naval victories.
An ancient Egyptian stone inscribed with a decree issued at Memphis in 196 BC on behalf of King Ptolemy V. The decree appeard in 3 scripts: the uppertext is text is Ancient Egytian hieroglyphics, the middle portion Demotic script, and the lowest Ancient Greek.
in 1799, the two remaining members were Austria and Great Britain, which had been formed against France in 1798. when these overtures were rejected, French armies led by Napoleon decisively defeated the Austrians.
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
Josephine de Beuharnais
She was the first wife of Napoleon Bonaparte, and thus the first Empress if the French. Her first husband was guillotined during the Reign of Terror, and she imprisoned in the Carmes prison until her release 5 days after her husband's executuion
Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
Council of 500
This was the lower house of the legislature of france during the period commonly known as the Directory, from August 22,1795 until November 9, 1799, roughly the second half of the period generally referred to as the French Revolution.
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
This was established in 1801 as educational reform. It initially enrolled the nation's most talented students. They did have to pay tuition, although, there was some financial help for poorer students. This was where they trained the nation's future bureaucrats
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
consisted of Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden, and Prussia, defeated by Napoleon in brilliant victories (only defeat was off southern coast of Spain)(stopped invasion of England and ensure British Naval supremacy)
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
Battle of Austerlitz
battle between Austria, Russia, and France; the French under Napoleon defeated the Russian armies of Czar Alexander I and the Austrian armies of Emperor Francis II
Battle of Jena
the battle in October 1806 in which Napoleon decisively defeated the Prussians., To punish Prussia for joining the Third Coalition, Napoleon engaged in this battle. He obliterated the Prussian army and occupied their capital city of Berlin. King of Prussia Fredrick william the third asked protection from the Tzar of Russia against Napoleon
Confederation of the Rhine
Napoleon formed this in 1807 from a league of about 20 German princes. Each was sovereign and the confederation included the kingdoms of Saxony, Bavaria, Wurtemburg and Westphalia. Westphalia was made up of Hanover and bits of Prussia. Napoleon put his youngest brother, Jerome, on the throne.
1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
in 1807 which proclaimed that any vessel that submitted to British regulation or allowed itself to be searched by the Royal Navy was subject to seizure by France.
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
Duke of Wellington
leader of the combined British and Prussian army; would defeat Napoleon at Waterloo
Battle of Borodino
the bloodiest battle of the Napoleonic era, fought outside of Moscow; both sides had terrible losses, but the Russian army was not defeated; Napoleon gained nothing substantial and when Moscow was burned, the French forces were left completely cut off. Napoleon regarded this battle as a loss.
Comprised of Prussia, Russia, Britain, Saxony, and Sweden, they fought against Napoleon from 1806-7. The war featured several major victories for the French, who conquered almost all of Prussia and Poland; the war ended with the Treaties of Tilsit.
Battle of Leipzig
Also known as the Battle of the Nations; in October 1813, the combined armies of the fourth coaliton decisively defeated Napoleon and the French army
The tiny island that Napoleon was granted after his abdication. Off the coast of Italy. (1st exile)
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat, Located in Belgium, the place where the british army and the prussian army forces attacked the french. Napoleon's final defeat against the British and Prussians
place of napoleons second/last exile and death
Marie-Louise (of Austria)
The second wife of Napoleon. They were married on March 12, 1810 in Vienna, creating an alliance between Austria and France.
when Napoleon sent troops into Portugal to impose the Continental System there
The Spanish Ulcer
Also known as the Peninsular War. Napoleon decided to conquer Spain and after forcing the Spanish king to abdiccate, Napoleon made his brother king. The British sent an army to help the Spanish and Portuguese drive out the French. He failed to suppress the Spanish uprising and defeat the British. Lasted from 1808 to 1814. Napoleon continued to control Spain's government, but the campaign drained the French military resources. In 1814, the Spanish, with British helped drive out Joseph Bonaparte. They drew a new constitution that provided a limited monarchy. The Spanish revolt with the new constitution illustrated the tremendous influence of the ideals of the French Revolution.
Goal of the Continental System
to isolate Britain and promote Napoleon's mastery over Europe
"order in council"
Britain proclaimed any ship stopping in Britain would be seized when it entered the continent
War of 1812
The edicts of the Continental System eventually led to the...
France vs. Russia;
a.k.a. Grand Duchy of Warsaw;
Friedland - France defeated Russian Troops;
France occupied Konigsberg, capital of East Prussia
France vs. Spain, Portugal;
Portugal did not comply with this system;
France wanted Spain's support to invade Portugal;
Spain refused, so Napoleon invaded Spain as well
France vs. Britain;
Trafalgar (Lord Nelson: French Navy Lost!)
France vs. Britain, Austria, & Russia;
Ulm - France defeated Austria;
Austerlitz - France defeated Austria & Russia
The "Big Blunder"
The retreat from Spain came on the heels of Napoleon's disastrous Russian campaign (1812-1813);
In July 1812, Napoleon led his Grand Armee eastward across central Europe and into Russia.
- Russians avoided direct contact with Napoleon
- Retreated to Moscow, drawing French into interior of Russia.
- Russian nobles abandoned estates and burned their crops to the ground.
Napoleon's army that consisted of 614,000 men
The government established after the overthrow of the Directory to bring political satiability and strengthen Napoleon's executive power
Legion of Honor
An executive group consisting of talented and meritorious people from the French population, for their service to the nation.
The French legal system enacted in 1804 containing the details for French civil , commercial, and criminal war.
Battle of Trafalgar
British victory in 1805 which destroyed Napoleon's plan to invade England and secured Britain's dominance over naval power during the 19th century.
Absolute rulers who imposed reforms that would benefit their subjects as well as themselves.
A series of laws to help supervise the rights of other religions in France besides Catholicism.
Concordat of 1801
An agreement between Napoleon and the Papacy which declared Catholicism " the religion of the majority of the French citizens."
The establishment of a French blockade of English ships from docking in European ports, therefore, crippling English trade
I depicted the cruelty of the French in their attacks on Spanish citizens in my paintings.
Treaty of Fountainbleau
This finalized the exile of Napoleon to a Mediterranean island off the coast of Italy where Napoleon would be emperor of Elba alone.
The island where Napoleon was exiled to after his first defeat as emperor in France.
1812 Invasion of Russia
This was the result of Napoleon's growing frustrations with the inefficiency of the Continental system and his growing interests in the Mediterranean region.
Confederation of the Rhine
Composed of 16 German states who excepted French presence in southern Germany, and promised to support Napoleon if war broke out. It also ended the Holy Roman Empire.
Napoleon's attempt to march across Spain in order to conquer Portugal. Napoleon attempts to secure French control over Spain and is meet with opposition by Spanish guerrillas.
Leader of the English fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar, he died in the battle but the success of his fleet was one of history's most decisive victories
The foreign minister of Austria who helped to manage and control the agreement made by European nations in the Congress of Vienna. He was a conservative and believed in absolutism.
State secondary schools, intended to give it's students technical training and to produce loyal military officers and government officials from the graduates
Napoleon's escape from Elba back to France where he is reunited with his old army am marches through southern France
Napoleon mobilized his army against the English and Prussians after his return from Elba. The Prussian army comes to the aid of the English and defeat Napoleon's army
Former slave whom aided in the independence of Haiti from the French.
defeat England through economic war
Napoleon's purpose in instituting the Continental System was...
equality under the law, but not political freedom
In general, Napoleon championed...
it was a symbolic gesture to show his independence
Why is it significant that Napoleon crowned himself as Emperor of the first French Empire in 1804
Napoleon's invasion of Spain
What was the direct cause of the rebellions in Latin America in the first part of the 19c?
Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia
The Quadruple alliance against Napoleon consisted of what European powers?
Napoleon joined the _________ shortly after the French Revolution
allowing the countries to govern themselves for 6 years
Napoleon's conquest of Spain claimed its American Empire by....
he replaced the empire with the Confederation of the Rhine
How did Napoleon deal with the Holy Roman Empire?
was divided into departments rather than provinces
After the French Revolution and the Napoleon era, France...
What country was NOT ruled by a member of the Bonaparte family during the first decade of the 19c?
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