Primary Prevention : Those preventive measures that forestall the onset of illness or injury during the pre-pathogenesis period (before the disease process begins).
Ex. wearing s safety belt, using rubber gloves when there is potential for the spread of disease, immunizing against specific diseases, exercising, and brushing one's teeth
Secondary Prevention : Includes the preventive measures that lead to an early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a disease or an injury to limit disability and prevent more serious pathogenesis.
Ex. personal and clinical screenings and exams such as blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and hemocult (hidden blood) screenings; breast self-exams; and testicle self exams.
Tertiary Prevention: Health education specialists work to retrain, reeducate, and rehabilitate the individual who has already incurred disability, impairment, or dependency.
Ex. educating a patient after lung cancer surgery or working with an individual who has diabetes to ensure that the daily insulin injections are taken.
Health: a dynamic state of humans that is multidimensional (physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and occupational) in nature. This results from the persons interactions and adaptations to the environment.
Health Education: planned learning experiences based on theories that give individuals, groups, and communities the opportunity to learn information and skills needed to make important health decisions.
Health Promotion: A combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organizational mechanisms that support and promote the actions of living for individuals, groups, and communities.
Disease Prevention: reducing the risks of disease in order to promote, preserve, and restore health among individuals to lessen the stress and suffering
Public Health: the science of protecting and improving the health of communities through education, promotion, and research for disease and injury prevention
Wellness: focuses on maintaining or achieving a healthy balance of the dimensions of health through increasing the adoption of health enhancing conditions and behaviors instead of attempting to minimize conditions of illness
Epidemiology: the study of the determinants of health related states or events in specific populations and to control health problems.
The term philosophy means: a statement summarizing the attitudes, principles, beliefs, values, and concepts held by an individual or a group.
The term philodoxy means: the love of opinion.
Philosophies are formed by focusing on attitudes, principles, beliefs, values, and concepts of a particular individual or group. Then, by exploring why the individual/group values are represented through those themes, a philosophy is created.
The need for philosophy is to help people form their own basis of reality.
1. Environment - This construct refers to one's environment helping being a determining facto for certain diseases and putting certain populations more at risk or less at risk compared to others and their varied environments.
2. Situation - Refers to people's current context that may urge them on or discourage them to participate in certain health behaviors.
3. Reciprical Determinism- Refers to behavior changes resulting from an interaction between people and their environment, as well as change occuring to the environment by people; bidirectional change.
4. Self Efficay- This refers to people's confidence in their ability to perform a certain desired task or function. Some people may feel super confident which will easily help them achieve goals, whereas others may feel the opposite and have low self-efficacy.
5. Behavioral Capability- Having the knowledge and skills necessary to perform a behavior, once people are equipped with these they can perform certain behaviors to the best of their capabilities,
6. Expectations - Beliefs about the likely outcomes of behaviors; These beliefs can either persuade or discourage someone from participating.
7. Expectancies - Values people place on expected outcomes; If the outcome is not that important to them, they likely will forgo participating or continuing to carry out certain health behaviors.
8. Self-Control - Gaining control over own behavior through monitoring and adjusting it; Seen in people trying to quit behaviors.
9. Observational Learning - Refers to viewing patterns seen in one's own society and mimicking these.
10. Reinforcements - Responses to behaviors that increase the chances of recurrence; If people are praised for participating in certain health behaviors, then they are more likely to do it again.
11. Emotional Coping Responses - For people to learn, they must be able to deal with the sources of anxiety around the behavior, for example if someone fears getting tested because of the likelihood of results, they need to tackle this anxiety by knowing it is better that they are aware and treat any possible diseases.
12. Locus of control - Perception of the center of control over reinforcement. Both internal and external are categories of this control, those who feel they have control over reinforcement are said to have internal, while those who feel reinforcement comes from outside factors, have external locus of control.
Deontological theories claim that certain actions are inherently right or wrong, or good or bad, without regard for their consequences. For example, a deontologist would argue that lying to a client or patient is wrong even if it's done to help that person.
Teleological theories on the other hand, evaluate the moral status of an act by the goodness of the consequences. Using the same example of lying to a patient, if the consequences turned out okay, the consequentialist would see this act as morally okay.
Five basic principles applied to human morality:
Value of life principle stated "human beings should revere life and accept death" means that no life should be ended without very strong justification. For example, topics such as abortion, suicide, capital punishment raise a number of ethical questions.
Principle of goodness (rightness) include 2 parallel principles ethics, 1) nonmaleficence which refers to the non-infliction of harm to others and 2) beneficence which simply means doing good, take positive steps to help others
Principle of justice (fairness) deals with treating other people fairly and justly in distributing goodness (benefits) and badness (burdens)
Truth telling (honesty), to tell the truth, being honest
Individual freedom (equality principle or principle of autonomy), referred that we are to respect others for who they are, respect the rights of others to deliberate, choose and act