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Terms in this set (58)

The Transtheoretical Model is a decision making model that contains five constructs: Pre-contemplation, Contemplation, determination preparation, action, maintenance, and sometimes a replace recycle.

The first stage of pre-contemplation is where an individual might be in denial about their problem. For example, an alcoholic might be use to drinking so often that they can manage their behaviors while under the influence, so they might deny or not feel that they have an alcohol problem to begin with.

The next change would be contemplation in which the individual starts to think. For the example of an alcoholic the individual might be on the fence on wanting to seek treatment.

The following stage is preparation lasting from 0-3 months this is where an individual starts to perceive the benefits. Continuing with the alcohol example this is where the individual might see the benefit of not being irritable all the time when he is drunk with his friends.

Next would be the stage of action which is said to be about 3-6 months in duration. In the action stage the individual is actually doing something about the problem. So for an alcoholic going to treatment with alcohol anonymous is an example.

Lastly is the stage of maintenance in which the individual is living out without the behavior. For an recovering alcoholic this might be avoiding bars and previous social groups that might tempt them to drink again. This stage would need to last more than 6 months.

On the same note, if an individual could not maintain in the maintenance stage they would fall into the relapse cycle in which they go back to their previous behavior. Relapse can happen anywhere within the model. In the example of a recovered alcoholic, accidentally drinking at a party.
The Social Cognitive Theory: This theory was formally known as the Social Learning Theory. It describes learning as a shared interaction among an individual's behavior, environmental, and personal factors. The personal factors include cognitive, affective, and biological events.The Social Learning theory explains the learning process through the following constructs:

1.) Reciprocal Determinism: How 3 factors influence one another.

2.) Behavioral Capability: Is the individual capable of changing his or her behavior and are they ABLE to preform the behavior.

3.) Expectations: What do they expect from this behavior change

4.) Reinforcement:Positive or negative outcomes

5.) Self Efficacy: Self confidence and likelihood to change

6.) Observational Learning: Ability to learn by observing others



Diffusion Theory: explains the diffusion of innovations within the population. This theory classifies people in groups, innovators, early adopters( separated into early/late majority), and laggards. Innovators are the first to adopt an innovation and are often independent risk-takers. Early adopters desire to be involved, however don't want to be the first to be involved. The early adopters essentially become the early majority which refers to people that express interest in an innovation but require external motivation to become involved. The late majority are most skeptical and won't adopt to an innovation unless the majority of society has. The laggards refer to the last ones to get involved if they decide to get involved at all.
1. Environment - This construct refers to one's environment helping being a determining facto for certain diseases and putting certain populations more at risk or less at risk compared to others and their varied environments.

2. Situation - Refers to people's current context that may urge them on or discourage them to participate in certain health behaviors.

3. Reciprical Determinism- Refers to behavior changes resulting from an interaction between people and their environment, as well as change occuring to the environment by people; bidirectional change.

4. Self Efficay- This refers to people's confidence in their ability to perform a certain desired task or function. Some people may feel super confident which will easily help them achieve goals, whereas others may feel the opposite and have low self-efficacy.

5. Behavioral Capability- Having the knowledge and skills necessary to perform a behavior, once people are equipped with these they can perform certain behaviors to the best of their capabilities,

6. Expectations - Beliefs about the likely outcomes of behaviors; These beliefs can either persuade or discourage someone from participating.

7. Expectancies - Values people place on expected outcomes; If the outcome is not that important to them, they likely will forgo participating or continuing to carry out certain health behaviors.

8. Self-Control - Gaining control over own behavior through monitoring and adjusting it; Seen in people trying to quit behaviors.

9. Observational Learning - Refers to viewing patterns seen in one's own society and mimicking these.

10. Reinforcements - Responses to behaviors that increase the chances of recurrence; If people are praised for participating in certain health behaviors, then they are more likely to do it again.

11. Emotional Coping Responses - For people to learn, they must be able to deal with the sources of anxiety around the behavior, for example if someone fears getting tested because of the likelihood of results, they need to tackle this anxiety by knowing it is better that they are aware and treat any possible diseases.

12. Locus of control - Perception of the center of control over reinforcement. Both internal and external are categories of this control, those who feel they have control over reinforcement are said to have internal, while those who feel reinforcement comes from outside factors, have external locus of control.
Ethics is a major area of philosophy and is the study of morality. Chapter 5 uses these terms interchangeably

Morality according to Sperry is the "activity of making choices and of deciding, judging, justifying, and defending those actions or behaviors called moral"

Ethics according to Sperry is the "science of how choices are made or should be made." He also says that ethics helps people decided what behaviors are good and bad according to what is normal or common.

Moral sensitivity is knowing that there is an ethical problem and knowing what effect certain actions will have on people who are involved in the situation

Justice or as the book uses fairness is described as treating people fairly whether the treatment is good or bad. There are two types of justice the first is procedural justice which is dealing with the fair procedures and whether or not they are followed. The second is distributive justice which deals with the "allocation of justice," which means basically the appropriate share of justice.

Nonmaleficence is the principle of doing no harm. Nonmaleficence is described as the intentional and non-intentional harm of an action or not committing an action. An example would be omitting something or committing something that could cause harm. The book breaks it into three categories which are not inflicting harm, preventing harm, and removing harm.

Code of ethics is "documents that maps the dimensions of profession's collective social responsibility and acknowledges the obligations individual practitioners share in meeting the professions responsibilities." - This is a written document that basically says what behaviors and actions are acceptable or normal in the professional work place. They are guidelines that professionals should adhere to.