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a prose piece that argues, analyzes, or narrates


imagined story, whether in prose, poetry, or drama FAKE


an essay that does not narrate made-up events, but it is not a work of pure fact; they always include some opinion

narrative essay

an essay where the center of the story is about actual events

descriptive essay

an essay where the writer uses detailed descriptions

analytical essay

an essay where the writer focuses on how and why something works or how and why something is true

argumentative essay

an essay where the writer states a strong thesis about a debatable issue, providing evidence to back up that claim

expository essay

an essay that is informative


the central idea of a work; in an argumentative essay it is the author's claim that he/she is supporting


the implied attitude of a writer toward the subject and characters of a work, as, for example, Judy Brady's sarcastic tone in "Why I Want a Wife."


the way a author chooses words, arranges them in lines, sentences, paragraphs, or stanzas, and conveys meaning through the use of imagery, rhythm, rhyme, figurative language, irony, and other devices

cause/effect relationships

organizational pattern where the first event not only proceeded the second, but caused it to happen

comparison/contrast relationship

a relationship that shows how things are alike and different

subject by subject structure

a way a writer would compare/contrast by writing about object A in the first half of the essay ad object B in the second half of the essay

point by point structure

a way a writer would compare/ contrast by discussing the first point of comparison/contrast between A and B, then the second point of comparison/contrast, then the third and so on

Modes of organization: chronologically

a work where events unfold in the order in which they occurred

Modes of organization: spatially

a work where the author will look at an object being described and move, for instance, from right to left or top to bottom

Modes of organization: logically

the way a writer organizes a work so that it ill be understood easier. These organizational modes might include cause/effect, or least important to most important.

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