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History Ch.3

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analects
a record of the words and acts of the central Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius and his disciples
The art of war
A guide, written in the middle of the 5th century B.C.E., on how one can carry a successful war campaign. Sun Tzu, its author, suggest alternatives to fighting and how one can win war without warfare.
Ban Zhao
one of the best known women who achieved a position of status in Han China. A Confucian scholar and writer who wrote poems and essays and the history of the Han dynasty. Also the writer who wrote "Lessons for Women", made women to be humble and obediant but also industrious
Book of Changes
book that talks about how everything is made of yin and yang
Book of Documents
Zhou dynasty text that Confucius interpreted and revived that contains political speeches and documents from the early han dynasty
Book of songs
Ancient Chinese (Zhou) classic, also known as the Book of Poetry, and the Book of Odes. Collection of verses on light and serious themes. 311 poems complied and edited after 600 BCE. Some poems reflect conditions of the early Zhou dynasty, some have political implications because they recorded the illustrious deeds of heroic figures and ancient sage-kings, and others were hymns sung at ritual observances. Also about life, love, family, nature, daily life.
Confucius
Chinese philosopher, administrator, and moralist. His social and moral teachings, collected in the Analects , tried to replace former religious observances, founder of Confucianism
Daoism
Chinese School of Thought: Daoists believe that the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao, or 'path' of nature.
Di
the high god in Shang religion
eunuchs
castrated males used within households of Chinese emperors, usually to guard his concubines; became a political counterbalance to powerful marital relatives during later Han rule.
filial piety
in Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
Four cardinal principles
ideas asserted by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping that all policies should be judged by whether they uphold the social road, dictatorship of the proletariat, leadership of the Communist Party, and Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought.
Fu Hao
a Chinese king's wife who led troops to war. Her tomb contained records of her time and life
Great Wall
a fortification 1,500 miles long built across northern China in the 3rd century BC
Guan Zhong
the war genius behind the rise of the Qin
Guanzi
The book of the teachings of Guan Zhong
Han Feizi
A student of the Confucian scholar Xunzi, a systematic Legalist theorist. Served as an advisor at the Qin court, but fell to ambitious men who made him take poison.
Hsia dynasty
first Chinese dynasty; not enough evidence of its existence to know it existed for a fact
Junzi
a term created by Confucius to describe his ideal human. Often translated as "gentleman" or "superior person" the junzi literally means "ruler's son". Despite its literal meaning, any righteous man willing to improve himself can become a junzi.
Laozi
the "Old Master" who encouraged people to give up worldly desires in favor of nature; he founded Taoism (Daoism)
Legalists
Chinese philosophy believed that people were evil by nature and that only strict laws and harsh punishments would make society better.
loess
a fine-grained unstratified accumulation of clay and silt deposited by the wind
logographic
a form of writing that represents the meaning of words and concepts with pictures or signs; contrasts with writing systems that represent speech sounds
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Mandarin Chinese
the dialect of Chinese spoken in Beijing and adopted as the official language for all of China
Middle Kingdom
refers to China because the people believed that their land stood between heaven and earth.
Mozi
Challenged Confucius ideas, believed in "concern for everyone" or "universal love", people should be hired for ability instead of birth.
Oracle Bones
animal bones carved with written characters which were used for telling the future
Patriarchalism
a sytem of social organization built around authority and power of fathers
Qin
A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.E.). The Qin ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and enslaved subjects. (163)
ren
The Confucian virtue of ____ ("benevolence" or "humaneness") means that a person will always do what is right, regardless of the consequences.
Shi Huangdi
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. (163)
Spring and Autumn Annals
Confucius reported major events that occurred in the state of Lu between 722 BC and 481 BC
Sun-Tzu
author of the art of war
Tao Te-ching
wrote the Laozi of Legalism
Taotie
a mask which is a combination of different animals. A symbol of all the beings in the world
Warring States
After the political initiative had passed from the Zhou kings to their subordinates, and the royal court never regained authority. Territorial princes ignored the centeral government and used their resources to build, strengthen, and expand their own states. Fought ferociously with one another in hopes of establishing themselves as leaders of a new political order. Fights so violent its got it's name. Ended the Zhou dynasty when the last king abdicated his position under pressure.
Xunzi
follower of Confucius; stressed that humans were inherently lazy and evil and required an authoritarian government., Believed humans selfishly pursued their own interests, no matter what effects their actions had on others, resisted making any contribution voluntarily to the larger society. Legalist and confucian ideas.
Yang
the bright positive masculine principle in Chinese dualistic cosmology
Yin
the dark negative feminine principle in Chinese dualistic cosmology
Zhou
The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History. (p. 61)
Zhou Wen Wang
founder of zhou dynasty
Zhuangzi
The author of a book of the same name. Shared many of the central ideas of the Laozi, such as the usefulness of the useless and the relativity of ordinary distinctions., ca. 369-286 BCE. great teacher of Daoism after Laozi one of the main contributors in Doaism; used stories and humour to promote a philosophy of freedom from social constraints and conditioning that could lead one back to an original undistorted state of being
Zuo Commentary
a book written by Guan Zhong telling his king about millitary strategy
Confucianism
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
Daoism
Chinese School of Thought: Daoists believe that the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao, or 'path' of nature.
Legalism
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime. (p.52)
Mohism
A belief that universal love will end social problems and that partiality is the source of all problems