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Chapter 19 The Cardiovascular System: The Blood
Terms in this set (47)
Describe the relationship between blood and interstitial fluid
Blood transports O2 from the lungs and nutrients from the GI tract, which diffuse from the blood into the interstitial fluid and then into body cells. CO2 and other wastes move in the reverse direction, from body cells to interstitial fluid to blood
Describe the functions of blood
1) Transportation: allows transportation of O2, CO2, nutrients, waste, heat, hormones, etc.
2) Regulation: regulates homeostasis, pH, body temp, etc.
3) Protection: protects by clotting, white blood cells protect against disease
Describe the properties of blood
Temp = 104.5
Volume= 5-6L males & 4-5L females
Name the 2 major components of blood and what % are each of your blood
Plasma = 55%
Formed elements = 45%
Name the components of plasma
Water 91.5% and Solutes (proteins) 8.5%
Identify the 3 major plasma proteins
Albumins, globulins, fibrinogin
the development of formed elements
Where are formed elements developed?
In red bone marrow
What type of cell is the precursor to all formed elements?
stem cells differentiate into progenitor cells
What are the cells/ cell fragments that make up the formed elements of blood?
1)Erythrocytes (red blood cells), 2)Leukocytes (white blood cells), 3) Platelets
What is another name for red blood cells?
What are the generic functions of RBCs?
Describe the structure of a RBC
Are biconcave discs with no nuclei or organelles. They are packed with hemoglobin molecules
What is the approx life span of a RBC
What term refers to the development of RBCs?
What organ is stimulated by reduced oxygen and releases erythropoietin?
What is erythropoietin?
A glycoprotein hormone that controls red blood cell production
What is hypoxia?
A deficiency in the amount of O2 reaching the tissues
In what situations is hypoxia induced?
Hemorraging, high altitudes, or aerobic exercise
Describe the negative feedback loop that maintains homeostatic O2 levels
A drop in oxygen levels in one's body triggers the release of erythropoietin from the kidneys and liver. This triggers erythropoiesis to occur. Within a couple days, new RBCs are in the blood, and a person's RBC level increase. As oxygen levels return to normal, the kidneys (and liver) stop making erythropoietin.
Describe the structure and function of hemoglobin
Hemoglobin consists of protein called globin (composed of 4 polypeptide chains) and heme, a ringlike non protein pigment which is connected to each of the 4 chains.
Where is iron located in hemoblogin?
In the heme
What 4 things are needed to make new RBCs?
Iron, Globin, Erythropoietin, and vit B12
Describe the destruction of RBCs
RBCs die and are destroyed thru phagocytosis
Describe the formation of RBCs
hemoglobin is divided into heme and globin. globin is broken down into amino proteins which are reused for protein synthesis. heme is divided into Iron and bilirubin. Bilirubin is transported to the liver and is released as bile. Iron binds to transferrin to transport to the liver. Then the the transferrin is removed and iron binds to ferratin for storage. When released from storage iron binds to transferrin for tranport to red bone marrow.
What is another name for white blood cells?
What are the generic functions of white blood cells?
In immune system function, they protect the body from infectious agents
What is diapedisis?
It allows movement from circulation to interstitial fluid. The ability of WBCs to pass thru the unruptured walls of capillaries into tissues
What are the differences between granulocytes and agranulocytes?
granulocytes have granule in their cytoplasm that is visible when stained. agranulocytes do not have granule in their cytoplasm
Which cells are granularcytes?
Neutrophil, Eosinophil, and Basophil
Which cells are agranularcytes?
Lymphocytes and Monocytes
What is granule?
Granule are chemical filled cytoplasmic vesicles
What type of cell is a monocyte converted into?
What are platelets?
a fragment of a megakaryocyte
What is the main function of platelets?
Approx how long do platelets live?
How are blood types determined?
Blood types are genetically determined by the glycoproteins found on the surface of the RBCs
What blood type is considered a universal donor?
What blood type is considered the universal recipient?
What is agglutination?
Clumping of blood cells due to an antigen- antibody reaction
What factor determines if your blood type is + or -?
If your blood contains RH antigens, it is +
If your blood does not contain RH antigens it is -
What antigens and antibodies does blood type A contain
A antigens, B antibodies
What antigens and antibodies does blood type B contain
B antigens, A antibodies
What antigens and antibodies does blood type O contain
No antigens, A & B antibodies
What antigens and antibodies does blood type AB contain
A & B antigens, no antibodies
What blood types can be received thru a transfusion for each blood type?
1) Type A = A, O
2) Type B= B, O
3) Type AB = A, B, AB, O
4) Type O = O
How does hemolytic disease occur?
It occurs when mother is RH -, father is RH +, and baby is RH +. If blood exchange occurs during delivery, the mother will make RH antibodies. If 2nd baby is RH +, antibodies from mother will cross placenta and destroy the fetus
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