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Chapter 21: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels & Hemodynamics
Terms in this set (21)
Describe the flow of blood from the heart to peripheral tissue and back to the heart
Leaves the heart thru arteries --> arterioles --> capillaries --> venules --> veins --> back to heart
Identify and describe the 3 layers of a blood vessel
1) tunica intima: forms the inner lining of a blood vessel. is in direct contact with the blood. Made up of multiple layers. Innermost layer is the epothelium. 2) tunica media: made up of smooth muscle and elastic fibers. 3) tunica externa: made up of elastic and collagen fibers
What are the differences between arteries and veins?
Arteries have thicker walls. Veins have thinner walls and larger diameters.
What direction do arteries transport blood?
Away from the heart
Do arteries carry oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
Usually oxygenated except in the pulmonary trunk
Largest. Known as conducting arteries because they conduct blood from heart --> muscular arteries. Abundant elastic fibers in tunica media. Stretch to accommodate surges in blood flow
Smaller. Known as distribution vessels. Deliver blood to organs. Abundant smooth muscle in tunica media. Has sympathetic innervation because responsible for vasoconstriction
What are arterioles?
Smallest arteries. Resistance vessels. This is where the biggest drop in blood pressure occurs.
Smallest blood vessel. Made of endothelium. Lack tunica media and tunica externa. Main function = exchange of substances between the blood and interstitial fluid
Name the 3 type of capillaries and where each is located
1) Continuous: Continuous tube interrupted only by the intercellular clefts. located in CNS, lungs, skin, and muscle tissue
2) Fenestrated: plasma membrane contains many small pores. located in kidneys, endocrine glands, villi of small intestine
3) Sinusoids: have intercellular clefts & fenestrations. located in liver, spleen
What are capillary beds? Where are they located?
are a network of vessels that are part of microcirculation. located in the organs
What is a metarteriole?
it empties into a capillary bed
What is a thoroughfare channel?
the distal end of a vessel. provides a direct route for blood from an arteriole to a venule
Where is the precapillary sphincter located?
at the arterial end of a capillary.
How does a precapillary sphincter control blood flow?
dictates whether blood goes thru capillary bed or a thoroughfare channel
thin walls that do not readily maintain their shape. drain the capillary blood and return the flow of blood back to the heart.
Thinner walls than arteries. Poorly developed tunica media. Tunica externa is the thickest. Have valves
What direction do veins carry blood in relation to the heart
They transport deoxygenated blood back to the heart
What is the function of the valves in veins?
Promote blood going back to the heart by preventing backflow of blood
What structures are considered to be the blood reservoirs?
systemic veins and venules because they contain a large % of the blood volume
Approx what % of the blood is located in the veins/venules, heart, and arteries/arterioles?
Veins/venules = 64%, heart = 7%, arteries/arterioles = 13%
Total = ~ 84%
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