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A&P Chapter 13
Terms in this set (69)
Function of blood
Transport - O2 nutrients CO2 defense against pathogens and blood loss
regulation -of body temperature and pH balance
Blood is a connective tissue with a fluid Matrix
The components become apparent when a blood sample is fun in a centrifuge heavy goes to the bottom
The cellular elements of blood; erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.
white blood cells and platelets settle are on top of our RBCs due to the weight of the hemoglobin less than 1%
Clear extracellular with a variety of molecules 55% of total blood volume
The main component of plasma is
Plasma also contains?
Nutrients, electrolytes, hormones, and gases
Play roles in blood clotting, the come around immune system, and regulation of fluid volume
Plasma without clotting proteins is called
thickness of blood
If the number of red blood cells drop ?
Blood becomes thinner
If too many red blood cells increase
Viscosity makes it sluggish
Thinning or thickening of red blood cells?
can cause cardiovascular problems
formation of blood cells
Two types of homeopathic tissue
-Red bone marrow
Red bone marrow
found in the ends of long bones produces all types of blood cells
found in spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus gland. produces specific type of white blood cells
Globins 4 ribbon-like proteins
Heme iron-containing molecule attached to each globin
for about 120 days;
-they then break up and are consumed phagocytic cells in the spleen and liver
The body constantly produces red blood cells to maintain homeostasis: process called
White blood cells last
Red blood cell cycle 1
1. Oxygen level decline as damaged red blood cells are removed from circulation to.
Red blood cell cycle 2
2. Kidneys detect decreasing oxygen levels and secrete hormone erythropoietin (EPO)
Red blood cell cycle 3
3.EPO stimulates red bone marrow and create new erythrocytes
Red blood cell cycle 4
4. Immature erythrocytes (called reticulocytes) are released into circulation after one to two days for illegal sites become mature erythrocytes
Red blood cell cycle 5
5. Increase number of red blood cells causes oxygen levels to increase;less EPO is produced in red blood cells production declines
in the liver and spleen and just and Destroy old red blood cells
In the process hemoglobin is broken into two components globin and heme
Red blood cells cycle
is broken down into amnio acids which are used for energy or to create new proteins
is broken down into iron and bilirubin iron is used to create new hemoglobin and bilirubin is excreted as intestines as part of bile
When the rate of new blood cells exceeds the rate of breakdown of old red blood cells an imbalance occurrs
Deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin
Types of anemia
*iron deficiency anemia - insufficient supply of iron
*pernicious anemia -lack of B12 due to lack of intrinsic factor
*insufficient supply of erythropoietin (EPO) due to kidney disease
Are the fewest of the formed elements.
How many types of white blood cells does the body have?
5 all different in size ,appearance, and abundance, and function
What does all leukocytes contain?
the purpose of white blood cells is?
Protect the body against pathogens
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
monocytes and lymphocytes
The most abundant of WBCs are?
An abnormal low white blood cell (leukopenia)may result from?
Certain Viral infection
An elevated white blood cell count (leukocytosis) usually?
indicates an infection or allergy
Blood condition of white cells; malignant (cancerous) condition.
Thrombocytes, are the second most abundant of the formed elements
Platelets are fragments of larger bone marrow cells called?
The edges of the megakaryocytes break off to form cell fragments called?
Platelets life spans last about
When a blood vessel is cut the body must react quickly to stop the flow of blood
2.the formation of platelet plug 3.formation of blood clot
Blood clotting; Vitamin K
Is found in green leafy vegetables and also formed by intestinal bacteria
Is responsible for the production of prothrombin
Different clotting factors
The initiation of 1 sets off a Cascade of others. Most clotting factors are produced by the liver abnormal liver function interferes with blood clotting
*usually a clot forms in an unbroken blood vessel.
*if it stays stationary is called thrombus.
*if it breaks off and travels, it is called and embolus.
*if it blocks a blood vessel it is called a thromboembolism
*cerebral thromboembolism ~brain stroke
*pulmonary thromboembolism ~lungs
Blood thinners; Basophils and mast cells secrete heparin, which blocks action of thrombin
Foreign substance or protein
protein produced in response to an antigen
Blood type A
A antigen and B antibodies
blood Type B
Type B blood has B antigens A antibodies
Blood Type AB
type AB blood have both A and B antigens
Blood type O
People with type O blood have neither antigen
sickle cell anemia
Hereditary disorder where the rbc's are Crescent celled shaped
Leukopenia is what?
a decrease in WBC's, is seen with viral infection or chemotherapy
Cancer with uncontrolled Production of WBCs
low platelet count
to many rbc's -make the blood thick increased risk of clots
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