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What are the functions of the endocrine system?
-regulate organic metabolism and H2O and electrolyte balance
-induce adaptive changes to help body cope w/ stressful situations
-promote growth and development
-regulate red blood cell production
-control circulation/digestion/absorption of food
-nonpolar hydrophobic (water hating) lipid-loving
-include steroid and thyroid hormones
*can pass through the cell membrane
-polar hydrophilic (water loving) lipid-hating
-do not readily pass through the cell membrane
messengers that communicate the info of hormones that cannot pass through the membrane
-do not have ducts
-work w/ nervous system for control of bodily functions
-indirect link to tissue
How do hormones bind to nuclear receptor proteins?
-lipid hormones travel in blood attached to carrier proteins
-they dissociate from carriers to pass thru plasma membrane of target
one hormone must be present in adequate amounts for full exertion of another hormone's effects
*if you release epinephrine in a cell and its affects make more binding sites for thyroid hormonesa
-occurs when actions of several hormones are complimentary
-combined effects is greater than the sum of their separate effects
-occurs when one hormone causes loss of another hormone's receptors
-reduces effectiveness of second hormone
What promotes growth, protein synthesis, and movement of amino acids into cells?
Growth Hormone (GH)
What stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol, aldosterone?
Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)
stores and releases 2 hormones produced in hypothalamus:
-promotes H2O conservation by kidneys
-causes contraction of smooth muscles in arterioles
-stimulates contractions of uterus during parturition (childbirth)
-stimulates contractions of mammary glands alveoli for milk ejection reflex
Effects of Thyroid Hormone...
-main determinant of basal metabolic rate
-influences synthesis and degradation of carbs, fat, & protein
-increase target-cell responsiveness to catecholamines
-increases heart rate and force of contractions
-essential for normal growth
-plays crucial role in normal development of nervous system
-an underactive thyroid
-slowing down of physical processes that result from insufficient thyroid hormone
-symptoms: fatigue, constipation, weight gain, low blood pressure
-rapid metabolism resulting from oversupply of thyroid hormone
-symptoms: anxiety, insomnia, weight loss, diarrhea, high blood pressure
Islets of Langerhans
-scattered clusters of endocrine cells in pancreas
-contain alpha, beta, & delta cells
pancreatic site of somatostatin synthesis: monitors bloods glucose & regulates insulin & glucagon activities (most impotant in regulating fuel metabolism)
-most common of all endocrine disorders
-prominent feature is elevated blood glucose levels
-2 major types: Type I & Type II
Type II Diabetes
normal/even increased insulin secretion but reduced sensitivity of insulin's target cells
-found in adrenal glands
-influence mineral balance specifically Na+ and K+ balance
-found in adrenal glands
-major role in glucose metabolism, protein and lipid metabolism
-activated during fight/flight response; releases epinephrine
-causes: increased respiratory rate, increased HR & cardiac output, general vasoconstriction which increases venous return, glycogenolysis & lipolysis
General Adaption Syndrome
-stress induced, nonspecific response
-causes ACTH & cortisol release
-affects physiology negatively
-produced and act within same tissue of an organ
-control gene expression in target cells
What are some of the affects of the anterior and posterior pituitary glands?
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