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History Finals Study Guide

Terms in this set (92)

The system, created by Frankish leader Charles "the Hammer" Martel in an effort to protect France from invasion and eventually spread to all of Europe. This worked with monarchs, nobles, lords, knights, free peasants, and serfs. A single monarch or monarch family ruled the entire kingdom (size of modern country). They had absolute power, but could not rule the entire kingdom and enlisted the help of nobles (barons). Nobles were the monarch's advisers who ruled over a fief (like a modern state or province). Nobles lived in castles. They were given the permission from the monarch to divide their fiefs into manors (about the size of a county). These manors were ruled by lords, who also lived in castles, as well as had many servants. A lord's wife was called a lady. Each manor had a village in it, and the rest of the land was used for farming, and for the lords only, hunting. Lords were responsible for making the land valuable. Knights were warriors who mainly protected the lords, but in times of crisis served the nobles and monarch. They were always related to the upper classes, and were paid with some land, food, and animals. Free peasants were farmers who rented land on the manor. Free peasants worked six days a week— three to grow food for the lord and three for themselves. Sunday was for praying, as everyone was a Christian. Free peasants could leave the manor as they wished, and had basic rights. On the other hand, serfs, who were almost slaves, had no money or rights. They worked tirelessly for the lord in exchange for living on the manor and getting the lords' protection.
He was born in 274 AD. His father, Constantius was a brilliant leader in the Roman Legion and he left the family when his son was a teenager to marry Theodora, who was the daughter of the king of the Western Roman Empire, Maximian. His son, who was in the Eastern Roman Empire, advanced in the Eastern Roman Legion by fighting against the Germanic barbarians. When Maximian and Diocletian, the ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire and the guy who split it in the first place, decided to retire in 305 AD, Maximian chose Constantius and Diocletian chose Galerius as the next kings. Constantius then invited his son to help him rule his empire. The next year, Constantius died, leading to his son being emperor. Some people doubted his abilities, leading him to fight for his power. Before the Battle of the Milivian Bridge, he had a vision of a cross telling that "In this sign, you shall conquer!" He ordered his troops to paint crosses on their shields and they won the battle. He then supported Christianity and passed the Edict of Milan with the leader of the Eastern Roman Empire, Licinius. Licinius ended up changing this mind and started persecuting Christians, which led to war. Constantine won and reunited the Roman Empire. He made major church donations and gave the Palace of St. John's Lateran to the pope. He also built the original St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. He renamed the capital to Byzantium, or Constantinople. The rich moved to the east, which left the poor in the west and that had a major effect. He died in 337 AD.
Jesus was born in 0 AD in Bethlehem and was raised in Nazareth during the rule of King Herod, a puppet of the Romans. When he was 30, he started preaching. He based his teachings on love, respect, freedom, individuality, and peace. He told his audiences to "love and honor god" and "love others as you would love yourself." He said all people were equal in eyes of god. He had 12 main disciples. Roman officials were scared he would become the king off the Jews and that his new religion would spread. Jesus's friend and disciple named Judas turned him in to the Roman police for 40 pieces of silver. The man who authorized Jesus's execution was Pontius Pilate, the governor of Judea. Peter was a fisherman who lived in Judea. He became devoted to Jesus and became his second in command.He became the first pope in 33 AD. Paul was a dedicated supporter of Jesus Christ. His original name was Saul.
He was as lawyer and hated Christians and persecuted them by going into their homes and beating them up. One day he was struck by a lightning bolt and he saw God, who told him to not cause his followers to suffer in pain. Paul stopped persecuting and spread Christianity as a missionary.
In the Christian Church, the pope was the head. 100 old and experienced people called cardinals advised the pope on making decisions. The church split the empire into many different parts ruled by different people. Archbishops ruled archdioceses (states) and worked in a cathedral to supervise all the churches.. Bishops ruled dioceses (counties) and supervised all churches. The dioceses were broken up into parishes and a priest was in charge of maintaining the church in each parish. The priest had to marry people, provide for the poor, deliver sermons everyday, pray for people who were sick and close to death, and communicate with the laity, or common people.
Justininan was born in 482 AD in a little village. He was born into a rich family.
His uncle was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire. He was incredibly smart and enjoyed learning about the Roman Empire. He didn't learn about people from the Republic, only the Empire. He learned a lot about Julius Caesar, Augustus Caesar, and Constantine. He became the emperor of the Byzantine Empire in 527 AD. His wife was Theodora, who was a prostitute. She was very smart and he listened to her advice. He was a strong and powerful leader. He believed he had to make Rome as glorious as it was during the time of Constantine.
He first wanted to reorganize Byzantine legion. He hired Belisarius to serve as the general for his army, who created a cavalry unit. He made troops wear thick armor and carry bow and arrow, and lances. Later, Byzantium conquered most of the Italian peninsula, and North Africa.
Justinian didn't take Rome back to its full glory, but he did give Byzantines a sense of honor, glory, and pride due to his military achievements. He also thought the laws were too unorganized and messy. He then ordered the Tribonian men to reform the law who made a new simplified version called the Justinian Code. When Justinian went to the Hippodrome to watch a chariot race, people starting rioting against the king instead of fans fighting each other which led to the Nika Riots. When Justinian was about to flee, Theodora convinced him to kill the rebels. He ended up doing so and he built the Hagia Sophia to make up for it. Justinian also built a basilica named San Vitale in Ravenna.
He was born in Mecca around 570 AD. He was a member of an Arabian tribe called the Quraysh Tribe. His father died before he was born and his mother died when he was only six-years-old. He lived with his grandfather and his uncle. When he was in his 20's, he became a caravan manager. He had a reputation of being sincere. He married a wealthy older woman named Khadijah. They had six kids together. Only one of their children, Fatima, lived long enough to have children of her own. In 619 AD, he remarried and had several more wives. He was deeply troubled that rich merchants would not help other people. He would pray for hours a day. One day, he traveled to a nearby cave to pray and meditate. A powerful angel named Gabriel apparently visited him there, and he learned that he was a prophet. He returned to Mecca to spread God's teachings. He was told that it was his mission to end idolatry, or the worship of idols. He had to bring together one religion under one God. This was the beginning of a new religion called Islam, which means submission. He kept spreading his teachings, and his family members, like Ali, his cousin, and his close friend, Abu Bakr, agreed to convert. Most of his teachings were not accepted at first, because Meccans were pagans. Others thought he was a threat to their wealth and power. They were worried about his criticism of the Ka'Bah Shrine, because it was a major tourist attraction, and their stores would go out of business. The Muslims were persecuted and many Meccans wanted to kill he. Things got so dangerous that he, his family, and other families that converted to Islam left Mecca in 622 AD. They went to a city called Medina and tried to spread Islam to the Christians and Jews there, but they wouldn't. He reacted with violence. Some Christians and Jews were killed by Muslims, and this man himself expelled them from the city. He told Muslims that Mecca was the holiest city. In 624, there was a battle between the Meccans and the Muslims. The Muslims were greatly outnumbered, but they still won. In 630, his army of 10,000 Muslims conquered Mecca. He spared the lives of polytheistic Meccans if they converted to Islam. He died in 632 AD. The way he lived and behaved is called the sunnah, and Muslims have to follow it. His words are collected in the hadith. Islamic ideas were eventually formed into shariah, laws they have to follow.
After Muhammad's death, two people thought they were qualified to take over Islam: Abu Bakr, Muhammad's best friend and trusted adviser, and Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin. Abu was not a blood relative of Muhammad, but Muhammad's closest advisors decided to make him the first caliph, or supreme religious and political leader after Muhammad. He was part of the Taym Clan, contrasting to Ali, who was part of the Hashim Clan, the clan Muhammad was in. Abu Bakr took over in 632, and was planning to conquer many regions for Islam when he died in 634 AD. After Abu Bakr died, a man named Umar, a strong and powerful leader, took his place. He was part of the Adi Clan. He built police departments, roads, and canals. He reorganized the government, and was a great conquer. Under his rule, the Muslims conquered Syria, Northern Egypt, and parts of the North African coast. He ruled for ten years, but his rule ended in 644 after he was stabbed to death by one of his slaves. Uthman became the new caliph. He belonged to the Umayyad Clan. He was not as popular as Abu Bakr or Umar, but he expanded the Islamic empire and ordered the creation of the world's first Koran, the Muslim holy book. A group of Egyptian Muslims became very angry at Uthman and killed him in 656 AD. After his death, Ali Talib became the fourth caliph. He made minor accomplishments as caliph, like the way taxes were collected and improving the way the imperial government operated. However, he was not effective or strong. Still, many Muslims believed and still believe he was important because he was Muhammad's blood relative. He was killed and overthrown in 661 after he didn't take swift action against the people who killed Uthman. These four caliphates—Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali—are part of The Rightly Guided Caliphate, the first Islamic empire. A man that was in charge of Ali's death, Muawiya, became the leader. The caliphate was renamed the Umayyad Caliphate, as Muawiya was part of the Umayyad clan. The Umayyad caliphate conquered all of Northern Africa, large parts of India, and the Kingdom of the Visigoths. In 750 AD, the Umayyad Caliphate was overthrown in a bloody rebellion led by a man named Abu-al Abbas. It was renamed to the Abbasid Caliphate. They focused on trade, education, and arts, rather than war, conquest, and expansion. In doing so, the Golden Age of Islam started. They moved the capital of their caliphate of Baghdad, which would become the richest and most developed city in the Middle East. In 909 AD, a Shia Muslim named Abdullah al-Mahdi led a violent rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate. He claimed that he was a direct descendant of Fatima, Muhammad's daughter. They renamed the caliphate to the Fatimid Caliphate. The Fatimids were more accepting than any other caliphate. They allowed Christians and Jews to work and pray. However, even they were eventually conquered by a large tribe called the Seljuk Turks. They eventually conquered the Byzantine Empire in 1453; the Byzantine Empire was already declining after they lost a battle to the Seljuk Turks in Manzikert in 1071. Muslim missionaries helped spread the religion, alongside jihad, or holy war, against their enemies. None of their caliphates were ever democratic.