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Efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands caused by stress in one's life are collectively known as

Individual's coping strengths

The adaptive value of coping technique depends on the

aversive events that are unavoidable

Learned helplessness results when humans are subjected to

Martin Seligman

developed the learned helplessness model.

exhibit a pessimistic explanatory style

The belief that events are beyond one's control is particularly likely to emerge in people who


Diversion of anger toward a substitute target was noted by Sigmund Freud;


If you yell at your little sister/ after a fight with your girlfriend, would be diverting your anger through the use of

developing alternative rewards

When things are going poorly in one area of life, one may compensate by pursuing substitute forms of satisfaction. This coping strategy is referred to as

catastrophic thinking

Albert Ellis believes that problematic emotional reactions to stress are caused by


compared to depressed people "normal" people tend to " " the degree of which they are in control of chance events.

realistically appraising stress

Constructive coping involves

appraisal focused constructive coping

aimed at changing one's interpretation of stressful events.

emotion-focused constructive coping

aimed at managing potential emotional distress

problem-focused constructive coping

aimed at altering the stressful situation itself.

our activation level at the time.

Albert Ellis, emotional reactions to life events result mainly from

clearly identified problem


gather baseline data

The first step in a self-modification program

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