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Any form of impersonal paid communication in which the company or sponsor is identified.

Strengths of Advertising

1. Low Cost per Contact

2. Efficient way to reach a large number of consumers quickly.

Weaknesses of Advertising

1. High absolute costs

2. Impersonal

3. One-way; Difficult to receive feedback.

Public Relations

A program of action used to earn public understanding and acceptance.

Strengths of Public Relations

1. Often the most credible form of marketing communication.

2. Relatively low cost.

Weaknesses of Public Relation

1. Difficult to get media cooperation.

Sales Promotion

Short-term incentive to encourage purchase of a good or service.

Advantages of Sales Promotion

1. Effective at changing behavior in the short run.

2. Can provide a lower price without a permanent reduction

Weaknesses of Sales Promotion

1. Easily Abused

2. Easily Duplicated

3. Limited long-term effectiveness

Personal Selling

A purchase situation involving a personal, paid-for communication between two people in an attempt to influence each other.

Strengths of Personal Selling

1. Can select audience & tailor message.

2. Can give complex information

3. Immediate feedback

4. Very persuasive

Weaknesses of Personal Selling

1. Extremely expensive per exposure.

2. Messages may differ between salespeople.

3. Requires long-term commitment.

Digital Marketing

The promotion of brands, products and messages using all forms of digital media to reach your audience.

Strengths of Digital Marketing

1. Can be highly targeted and measurable.

2. Potential to be interactive and engaging.

3. Low cost.

Weaknesses of Digital Marketing

1. Reaches a demographically skewed audience.

2. Rapidly changing technology.

3. Can be difficult to control.



Which type of promotions work best under "Routine Decision Making Buying" decisions?

1. Advertising
2. Sales Promotion
3. Digital Marketing

Which type of promotions work best under "Limited Decision Making" decisions?

1. Advertising
2. Public Relations
3. Digital Marketing

Which type of promotions work best under "Extensive Decision Making" decisions?

1. Personal Selling

When Complexity, Risk, and Price are all high, which type of promotion is most useful?

1. Personal Selling

When Complexity, Risk, and Price are low, which types of promotional strategies work well?

1. Advertising
2. Public Relations
3. Sales Promotions
4. Digital Marketing

The Goals of Promotion

1. Informing
2. Persuading
3. Reminding
4. Connecting

What is Noise?

anything that distorts, interferes, or slows down the transmission of information.


Seeks to convert an existing need into a want or to stimulate interest in a new product.


designed to stimulate a purchase or an action.


used to keep the product and brand name in the public's mind.

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