71 terms

SS Science Quiz 1

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prokaryotic
unicellular organism that doesn't have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles
unicellular
Made of a single cell
autotroph
An organism that makes its own food
heterotroph
An organism that cannot make its own food and gets food by consuming other living things.
archaea
bacteria that lives in harsh environments
cocci
A spherical bacterium.
bacilli
Rod shaped bacteria
spirilli
A spiral-shaped bacterium.
flagella
Whip-like structures that help with cell movement
cilia
Tiny hairlike extensions that move together in a sweeping motion
Robert Hooke
1665, first scientist to see a cell in cork tree bark, created a compound light microscope, saw tiny boxes and named it cells which means "little rooms" in Latin
Anton van Leuwenhoek
the first to observe living cells under a microscope; he saw them in pond water and called them "animalcules". Given credit for improving the microscope lens. Often referred to as the "father of microscopy"
Matthias Schleiden
in 1838 -- He was a German botanist who concluded that all plants are made up of cells
Theodor Schwann
1839 - He was a German zoologist who concluded that all animals are made of cells.
Rudolf Virchow
1855 -- He was a German physician who concluded that all cells are made of previously existing cells.
Cell Theory
1. All organisms are composed of one or more cell
2. The cell is the basic unit of life in all living things
3. All cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells.
Homeostasis
The ability of an organism or environment to maintain stability (balance) in spite of changes
ex. Humans' internal body temperature, maintaining the correct balance of water, breathing is involuntary, the nervous system ensures that the body is getting much needed oxygen.
Main functions of the cell
1. Metabolism - use energy
2. Response to environmental changes
3. Growth
4. Maintain Homeostasis
5. Reproduction
6. Nutrition
7. Defense
Cell Membrane
The lipid bilayer that forms the outer boundary of the cell
Cell wall
A rigid structure that surrounds the cells of plants and most bacteria
Cytoplasm
The region of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus
Eukaryote
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Golgi apparatus
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
Lysosomes
An organelle containing digestive enzymes,
Mitochondria
powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar(Cellular respiration)
Nucleolus
The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus
Nucleus
The organelle that contains the DNA and controls the processes of the cell
Organelle
One of several bodies with a specialized function that is suspended in the cytosol of the cell
prokaryote
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Ribosome
An organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins
Vacuole
stores water and nutrients for the cell; very large in plant cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum
an internal membrane system in which components of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed
Rough ER
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
Smooth ER
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.
cell
basic unit of all forms of life
cell theory
fundamental concept of biology that states that all living things are composed of cells; that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living thingl and that new cells are produced from existing cells
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
nucleus
structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA
eukaryote
organism whose cells contain a nucleus
prokaryote
unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus
cytoplasm
in eukaryotic cells, all cellular contents outside the nucleus; in prokaryotic cells, all of the cell's contents
organelle
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a cell
vacuole
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
lysosome
cell organelle that breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell
cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments in a eularyolic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization and is involved in movement
centriole
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
ribosome
cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell
endoplasmic reticulum
internal membrane system found in eukaryolic cells
golgi apparatus
organelle in cells that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticules for storage in the cell or release outside of the cell
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and converts in into chemical energy
mitochondrion
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
cell wall
strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells
Science
An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world.
Observation
The act of noticing and describing events or processes in a careful, ordinary way. The work of scientists usually begins with this.
Inference
A logical interpretation based on what scientists already know.
Hypothesis
A scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested in ways that support or reject it.
Controlled Experiment
Where a hypothesis is tested with only one variable changed.
Independent Variable
Factor that is deliberately changed by the scientist. Also, known as the manipulated variable.
Dependent Variable
factor that changes due to what you changed (this is what you are measuring to verify or refute your hypothesis)
Control Group
Exposed to the same conditions as the experimental groups except for the independent variable (also called the negative control).
Data
Information and records of experimental observations.
Theory
A way to gather many similar hypotheses into one group.
Bias
A particular preference or point of view that is personal rather than scientific.
Biology
The study of life.
DNA
The information of living growing and reproducing stored in a genetic code written in this molecule.
Sexual reproduction
Cell from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism. Most plants and animals reproduce this way.
Asexual reproduction
Single organism produces offspring just like itself.
Constant
Any factor which is the same in every group to an experiment.
4 traits scientists share (COSC)
creativity, open-mindedness, skepticism, curiosity
How can you tell if something is alive?
contains DNA, grow and change over time, respond to their environment, reproduce, maintain internal environment, obtain and use energy, made-up of cells
Three goals of science
1. investigate and understand the natural world
2. explain events in the natural world.
3. make useful predictions.
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