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the process of the gradual destruction or diminution of something, can be mechanical, chemical or both
rocks react with air and water, includes mineral dissolution, hydrolysis, and oxidation
combined chemical & mechanical weathering, plutons that were under a lot of pressure are suddenly exposed & leaving the rock under no pressure at all
soil layer containing clay minerals & other things that accumulate from weathered material
soil type in tropical / equatorial regions where intense weathering has stripped the soil of everything except iron & aluminum
affects about 25% of croplands, occurs when we irrigate lands that weren't meant for farming, then the water evaporates & leaves Na, Ca, and Mg in soil
soil at or below 0 degrees Celsius for at least 2 consecutive years, water freezes & thaws
is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely. There may be coral islands/cays on the coral rim
The exceptionally high and low tides that occur at the time of the new moon or the full moon when the sun, moon, and earth are approximately aligned
A tide that occurs when the difference between high and low tide is least; the lowest level of high tide, - - comes twice a month, in the first and third quarters of the moon
is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean
consists of the transportation of sediments (clay, silt, sand and shingle) along a coast at an angle to the shoreline, which is dependent on prevailing wind direction, swash and backwash
is a partly enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea
is a band of anomalously warm ocean water temperatures that periodically develops off the western coast of South America and can cause climatic changes across the Pacific Ocean
is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. It contains approximately 80% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapour and aerosols
is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down
is a rain that possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure
is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. Pure water has a pH very close to 7
a portion of the stratosphere with a higher concentration of ozone, (from two to eight ppm) that is beneficial, preventing damaging ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth's surface, to the benefit of both plants and animals
is one of the residues generated in combustion, usually refers to ash produced during combustion of coal, was generally released into the atmosphere, but pollution control equipment mandated in recent decades now require that it be captured prior to release
are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens, Subsequent to the widespread use in commerce, many halocarbons have also been shown to be serious pollutants and toxins
non-point source pollution
originates from a large area or multiple places, ex: agricultural area or city
proportion of the volume of a material that consists of open spaces, indicates amount of water material can hold
ability to transmit fluid, measure of speed at which fluid can pass through a porous material
consumed and destroyed by organisms in soil or water, ex: sewage or fertilizers
A change in wind direction and speed between slightly different altitudes, especially a sudden downdraft
is a rapidly-rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain
A severe tropical cyclone originating in the equatorial regions of the Atlantic Ocean or Caribbean Sea or eastern regions of the Pacific Ocean, traveling north, northwest, or northeast from its point of origin, and usually involving heavy rains
is important in the understanding of global warming because - - may amplify or diminish the effect of each climate forcing, and so play an important part in determining the climate sensitivity and future climate state
The phenomenon whereby the earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence in the atmosphere of gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the earth's surface
any of the global circulatory currents (such as the Gulf Stream), that are driven by differences in temperature and salinity
is a landform that is formed at the mouth of a river, where the river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, or reservoir. - are formed from the deposition of the sediment carried by the river as the flow leaves the mouth of the river
A crescent-shaped lake formed when a meander of a river or stream is cut off from the main channel
Having waters rich in mineral and organic nutrients that promote a proliferation of plant life, especially algae, which reduces the dissolved oxygen content and often causes the extinction of other organisms. Used of a lake or pond
- valley, formed in connection with glacier movements, has a waterfall coming down off of it
refer to (near-) horizontal units that are internally composed of inclined layers, deposition on the inclined surfaces of bedforms such as ripples and dunes, and indicates that the depositional environment contained a flowing medium (typically water or wind)
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