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69 terms

Geology Quiz 3, 5, 6, 7, 4

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weathering
the process of the gradual destruction or diminution of something, can be mechanical, chemical or both
chemical weathering
rocks react with air and water, includes mineral dissolution, hydrolysis, and oxidation
oxidation
rocks react with oxygen, metals such as iron become iron oxides or rust
exfoliation
combined chemical & mechanical weathering, plutons that were under a lot of pressure are suddenly exposed & leaving the rock under no pressure at all
B Horizon
soil layer containing clay minerals & other things that accumulate from weathered material
laterite
soil type in tropical / equatorial regions where intense weathering has stripped the soil of everything except iron & aluminum
soil salinization
affects about 25% of croplands, occurs when we irrigate lands that weren't meant for farming, then the water evaporates & leaves Na, Ca, and Mg in soil
liquefaction
lateral spread of water saturated ground
permafrost
soil at or below 0 degrees Celsius for at least 2 consecutive years, water freezes & thaws
slump
movement of coherent mass or blocks alog a discrete surface or plain
mudflow
a fluid or hardened stream of avalanche of mud
creep
slow, down slope movement of clayey soil, usually <1 cm/yr
karst
formed by dissolution of limestone or other soluble rock
sinkhole
circular depression usually formed by roof collapse
subsidence
sinking, downward settling of the earth's surface
Atoll
is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely. There may be coral islands/cays on the coral rim
Spring Tide
The exceptionally high and low tides that occur at the time of the new moon or the full moon when the sun, moon, and earth are approximately aligned
Neap Tide
A tide that occurs when the difference between high and low tide is least; the lowest level of high tide, - - comes twice a month, in the first and third quarters of the moon
Gulf Stream
is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean
Longshore Current
consists of the transportation of sediments (clay, silt, sand and shingle) along a coast at an angle to the shoreline, which is dependent on prevailing wind direction, swash and backwash
estuary
is a partly enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea
El Nino
is a band of anomalously warm ocean water temperatures that periodically develops off the western coast of South America and can cause climatic changes across the Pacific Ocean
troposphere
is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. It contains approximately 80% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapour and aerosols
stratosphere
is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down
acid precipitation
is a rain that possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure
pH scale
is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. Pure water has a pH very close to 7
ozone
a portion of the stratosphere with a higher concentration of ozone, (from two to eight ppm) that is beneficial, preventing damaging ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth's surface, to the benefit of both plants and animals
fly ash
is one of the residues generated in combustion, usually refers to ash produced during combustion of coal, was generally released into the atmosphere, but pollution control equipment mandated in recent decades now require that it be captured prior to release
halons
are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens, Subsequent to the widespread use in commerce, many halocarbons have also been shown to be serious pollutants and toxins
non-point source pollution
originates from a large area or multiple places, ex: agricultural area or city
point source pollution
can be traced to a single origin, ex: pipe or factory
bed load
portion of a stream's load that is transported on or immediately above the stream bed
dissolved load
ions suspended in water, portion of a stream's sediment load carried in solution
porosity
proportion of the volume of a material that consists of open spaces, indicates amount of water material can hold
permeability
ability to transmit fluid, measure of speed at which fluid can pass through a porous material
artesian well or spring
water rises without pumping (under pressure)
geyser
type of hot spring that intermittently erupts hot water and steam
biodegradable pollutant
consumed and destroyed by organisms in soil or water, ex: sewage or fertilizers
remediation
treatment of a contaminated substance to remove or decompose a pollutant
water table
lies between the zone of aeration & zone of saturation
recharge
replenishment of an aquifer by the addition of water
wind shear
A change in wind direction and speed between slightly different altitudes, especially a sudden downdraft
tropical cyclone
is a rapidly-rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain
hurricane
A severe tropical cyclone originating in the equatorial regions of the Atlantic Ocean or Caribbean Sea or eastern regions of the Pacific Ocean, traveling north, northwest, or northeast from its point of origin, and usually involving heavy rains
typhoon
A tropical cyclone occurring in the western Pacific or Indian oceans
storm surge
An unusual rise in sea level on a coast due to the action of high winds
feedback mechanism
is important in the understanding of global warming because - - may amplify or diminish the effect of each climate forcing, and so play an important part in determining the climate sensitivity and future climate state
greenhouse effect
The phenomenon whereby the earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence in the atmosphere of gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the earth's surface
thermohaline circulation
any of the global circulatory currents (such as the Gulf Stream), that are driven by differences in temperature and salinity
delta
is a landform that is formed at the mouth of a river, where the river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, or reservoir. - are formed from the deposition of the sediment carried by the river as the flow leaves the mouth of the river
oxbow lake
A crescent-shaped lake formed when a meander of a river or stream is cut off from the main channel
point bar
A ridge, formed from the accretion of sand or gravel, on the inside curve of a meander
eutrophic
Having waters rich in mineral and organic nutrients that promote a proliferation of plant life, especially algae, which reduces the dissolved oxygen content and often causes the extinction of other organisms. Used of a lake or pond
albedo
surface reflectivity, deals with water absorbing light while snow reflects it
alpine
- glaciers, can form anywhere as long as it is at a high enough altitude
U-shaped
- valley, formed when a glacier punches through an area
Hanging
- valley, formed in connection with glacier movements, has a waterfall coming down off of it
Fjord
is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial erosion
Till
an unsorted glacial sediment
Moraine
rock debris transported by glaciers
Pleistocene Ice Age
lasts 2 million years, glaciers advance and retreat
Precession
refers to a change in the direction of the axis of a rotating object
Desert
area that receives less than 25cm of precipitation a year
Playa Lake
intermittently wet lake beds in the desert
Plateau
is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain
Dune
is a hill of sand built either by wind or water flow
Cross-Bedding
refer to (near-) horizontal units that are internally composed of inclined layers, deposition on the inclined surfaces of bedforms such as ripples and dunes, and indicates that the depositional environment contained a flowing medium (typically water or wind)
Loess
fine-rained wind-blown deposits of dust or silt
Desertification
process of desert expansion