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Arts and Humanities
7. Power, leadership and effective communication
Terms in this set (41)
is the ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue organisational goals.
doing right things
doing things right
create, articulate the vision and plan for the future of the organisation
inspire, encourage and rally others to achieve great goals.
Implement the company's vision and strategic plan, just as they organise, direct and control function.
5 sources of power
1. Legitimate power
2. Reward power
3. Coercive power
4. Expert power
5. Referent power
power directed at helping others. "My goal is to have a powerful impact on my community"
power directed at helping oneself - as a way of enhancing their own selfish ends may give the word "power" a bad name
influencing behaviour because of one's formal position
- Power that results from managers' formal positions within the organisation.
influecning behaviour by promising or giving rewards
- Power results from managers' authority to reward their subordinates; leaders also have this form of power.
- Rewards can range from praise to pay raises, from recognition to promotions.
influencing behaviour by threatening or giving punishment
- Which all managers have, results from managers; authority to punish or penalise their subordinates.
influencing behaviour because of one's expertise
- Power resulting from one' specialised info or expertise
influencing behaviour because of one's personal attraction
Power deriving from one's personal attraction - in regards to transformational leadership.
Trait approaches to leadership
attempts to identify distinctive characteristics that account for the effectiveness of leaders.
e.g: Steve Jobs - seemed to embody traits of dominance, intelligence, self-confidence, high energy and task-relevant knowledge.
Behavioural leadership approaches
attempt to determine the distinctive styles used by effective leaders. By leadership styles, we mean the combination of traits, skills and behaviours that leaders use when interacting with others.
The University of Michigan leadership model ( 2 forms )
1. Job-centred behaviour
2. Employee-centred behaviour
- "I'm concerned more with the needs of the job"
- Managers paid more attention to the job and work procedures.
- Thus, their principal concerns were with achieving production efficiency, keeping costs down and meeting schedules.
- "I'm concerned more with the needs of employees"
Managers paid more attention to employee satisfaction and making work groups cohesive.
Contingency approach to leadership by Fiedler
who believe that effective leadership behaviour depends on the situational at hand.
2 contingency approaches
1. Contingency leadership model by Fiedler
2. The path-goal leadership model by House
The path-goal leadership model by House
The model holds that the effective leader uses goal setting and support in the workplace to increase motivation by clarifying the paths, or behaviour, that helps employees achieved the goals and attain desirable rewards.
A successful leader thus helps followers by tying meaningful rewards to goal accomplishment, reducing barriers and providing support, to increase "the number and kinds of personal payoffs to subordinates for work-goal attainment.
from take-no-responsibility (laissez-faire) "leadership" at one extreme, through to transactional leadership and then transformational leadership at the other extreme.
- As a manager, your power stems from your ability to provide rewards ( and threaten reprimands) in exchange fro work from your subordinates.
- Focusing on clarifying employees' roles and task requirements and providing rewards and punishments contingent on performance.
- Transforms employees to pursue organisational goas over self-interests.
- Transformational leaders, in one description, "engender trust, seek to develop leadership in others, exhibit self-sacrifice and serve as moral agents, focusing themselves and followers on objectives that transcend the more immediate needs of the work group.
- Whereas transactional leaders try to get people to do ordinary things, transformational leaders encourage their people to do exceptional things - significantly higher levels of intrinsic motivation, trust, commitment and loyalty - that can produce significant organisational change and results.
Leader-member exchange (LMX) leadership
having different relationships with different subordinates
- Emphasises that leaders have different sorts of relationships with different subordinates
meeting the goals of followers and the organisation, not of oneself
Focuses on providing increased service to others - meeting the goals of both followers and the organisation - rather than to oneself.
managing for global networks
- Involve one-to-one, one-to-many, within-group and between-group and collective interactions via IT.
What is an efficient communicator?
transmits a message accurately in the least time. You are an effective communicator when the other person accurately understands your intended message.
how well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning.
the "sender transmitting a message though media to a receiver who responds
include variable skills in communication, in terms of vocab, writing ability and speaking skills. Facial expressions, the amount of eye contact, the dramatic ability, the "gift of gab" and social skills, as well as mood and emotions, all influence an individual's ability to express meaning and information in a superior way. Better comm skills can be learned.
4 formal communication channels:
up, down, sideways, outward
follows the chain of command or hierarchy within the organisation: bosses communicating with subordinates, subordinates communicating with bosses. The more management levels a messages passes through, the more it is prone to some distortion.
Downwards communication only flows from a high level to a lower level
Upwards communication flows from a lower level to a higher level.
flows within and between work units; its main purpose is coordination.
outside the organisation
E.g: stakeholders, customers, suppliers, other owners,... Companies have given this kind of communication heightened importance, especially with customers or clients, who are the lifeblood of any company.
2 informal communication channels
- Develop outside the formal structure and do not follow the chain of command - they skip management levels and cut across lines of authority.
- 2 types of informal channels are
1. The grapevine
2. Management by wandering around
- The unofficial communication system of the informal organisation, a network of gossip and rumour - what is called "employee language"
- Research shows that the grapevine is:
○ Faster than normal channels
○ About 75% accurate
○ Used by employees when they are insecure, threatened or faced with organisational change.
the use of technology to participate in several interactions at the same time.
How to become effective reader
- Recognise that speed reading doesn't work: lead to problems with dense or unfamiliar material.
- E.g: a study questioning respondents about their reading of difficult material found average readers got half the questions right, while speed readers got only 1 in three right.
Ohio State Leadership model
researchers identified two major dimensions of leader behaviour.
Initiating structure organises and defines what group members should be doing.
Consideration is leadership behaviour that expresses concern for employees by establishing a supportive climate
Fiedler contingency leadership have 2 styles
3 dimensions of situational control
1. leader-member relations: reflect the extent to which a leader has the support of the work group
2. task structure: to the extent to which tasks are routine and easily understood
3. position power: how much power a leader has to reward or punish and make work assignments
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