Social Issues Exam 3
Terms in this set (79)
a cause of war-in 1962 the US prepared for war against the Soviet Union after learning that Soviet nuclear missiles had been set up on Cuba, Israel invaded southern Lebanon after rocket attacks.
Cultural and Religious Differences
a cause of war-societies teaches members to demonize others as evil. Ethnic cleansing of Balkan conflict of 1990s, Serbs vs Croats, Muslims, and Ethnic Albanians.
a cause of war-to assert a leadership position in the world. US invasion of Grenada in 1982, Persian Gulf War 1991-1993, Iraq in 2003
a cause of war-Korean war was justified as efforts to stop communism, Iraq justified by moral goal of ending the rule of Saddam Hussein, 2011-US part of multinational force ending the rule of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi
Desire to Gain Wealth and Power
a cause of war-Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait for oil in 1990 sparking Persian Gulf War
The Desire to Turn a Population's Attention Away From Domestic Social Problems
a cause of war-People's Republic of China turned attention from economic hardship by supporting military conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, and Tibet.
The Absence of Alternatives For Resolving Disputes
a cause of war-no diplomatic means to end a threat or accomplish its political or moral objectives
violent conflict between nations or organized groups
the absence of violent conflict
Weapons of Mass Destruction
weapons with the capacity to kill many thousands of people at one time
the close association of the federal government, the military, and the defense industries
deadly conflict that targets both population centers and military targets
centers where prisoners are confined for purpose of state security, exploitation, punishment, or execution
the offense against the law of war as established by international agreements and international law
bombs that use atomic reactions to generate enormous destructive force
the acquisition of nuclear weapon technology by more and more nations
amount the world spends per year on militarism
the US military budget in 2012
US veterans suffer from war-related disability
US veterans totally disabled
amount of operational nuclear weapons
Crimes Against Peace
preparing for or starting an unjust war against another nation
Conventional War Crimes
murder, rape, torture, deportation, or other ill treatment of a population in any occupied territory
Crimes Against Humanity
political, racial, or religious persecution, including systematic killing, of any civilian population during war
amount of nuclear weapons worldwide
strategy to keep peace based on the threat of retaliation.
strategy to keep peace by use of new technology to defend against nuclear attack.
strategy to keep peace with international agreements on the development, testing, production, and deployments of weapons.
Examples of Arms Control
1970's the US and Soviet Union entered into the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) and in the 1980s and 90s the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), which lead to reduction of operational nuclear weapons. Focusing on existing weapons may do little to slow development of new powerful weapons. It is difficult to verify whether nations are living up to arms control agreements. Because nuclear weapons can destroy the planet it is more important to resolve the underlying conflict.
Examples of High-Technology Defense
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was initially unsuccessful. The Obama admin. is in favor of installing missile defense system based on radar and rockets in Europe
Examples of Deterrence
Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) has helped prevent war for more than 60 years. There are drawbacks-nuclear arms race is costly, the risk of error and entering an unintended war is high, deterrence cannot control nuclear proliferation
Resolving Underlying Conflict
strategy to keep peace with diplomacy
unlawful, typically random acts of violence or the treat of violence by an individual, group, or government to achieve a political goal
the practice by one government of providing money, weapons, and training to terrorists who engage in violence in another nation
Repressive State Terrorism
government use of violence within its borders to suppress political opposition
Structural Functional Approach to War
highlights the functions that war and other conflict have for society. War is a good strategy is nations expect the gains will outweigh the costs if the win is assured. Territorial boundaries have been established by wars, wars play a part in creating new nations, terrorism can be used effectively against a much stronger enemy, war unites the population of a nation to rally around a political cause. War creates jobs, expanding the economy, creating technological products of military research. War played a part in improving the social standing of women and other minorities.
focuses attention on the meanings people attach to war and other types of violent conflict, one sides terrorists are another sides freedom fighters. National leaders use symbols and meanings to spin the reality of war in their favor. People define own country as just, using various symbols and meanings to demonize the enemy. Recruits are trained to define the enemy as less than human, making killing them easier.
Social Conflict Approach to War
highlights the link between war and social inequality. Capitalists want profit which involves finding new sources of raw material, manufacturing new products, selling to new markets. Europe colonized, conquering and controlling other countries, for this reason of economic growth. Rich nations, US included, use military power to protect and expand the global capitalist economy. Iraq was less about helping that country than ensuring the flow of oil and opening more of the world to multinational corporations.
Conservatives on War
favor a strong defense against forces in the world hostile to the US, support the arms race and favor achieving peace through strength, see terrorism as criminal acts opposing freedom.
Liberals on War
support military defense of the US, but caution that a military buildup can provoke the very conflict it is intended to prevent, point out that spending on militarism takes money away from social programs that benefit the population,support diplomacy as a way to address the problems that lead to terrorism.
Radical Left on War
links war and militarism to social inequality, believe rich nations use military power to defend their economic interests and to support the global capitalist economy, see terrorism as a form of rebellion, one way poor and powerless people can make their suffering known and force change.
the process by which minorities gradually adopt cultural patterns from the dominant majority population
the systematic killing of one category of people by another
the physical and social separation of categories of people
a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted trains that a society defines as important
a shared cultural heritage, which typically involves common ancestors, language, and religion
any category of people, identified by physical or cultural traits, that a society subjects to disadvantages
a state in which people of all racial and ethnic categories have about the same overall social standing
a rigid and unfounded generalization about an entire category of people
an exaggerated description applied to every person in some category
the assertion that people of one race are less worthy than, or even biologically inferior to, others
racism at work in the operation of social institutions, economy, schools, hospitals, military, criminal justice system
educational programs designed to recognize cultural diversity in the US and to promote respect for all cultural traditions
the practice of using European, especially English, cultural standards to judge everyone
actions that treat various categories of a population differently
policies allow employers and universities to consider factors such as race in hiring and admissions decisions
Structural-Functional Approach to Racial and Ethnic Inequality
explains in terms of cultural values, the cultural poverty theory developed by Oscar Lewis claims that minorities develop a fatalistic cultural outlook that leads to a sense of hopelessness and low self esteem
Symbolic-Interaction Approach to Racial and Ethnic Inequality
highlights how race often operates as a master status in everyday interaction, WEB DuBois claimed that US society makes whites the standard by which others should be measured and in so doing devalues any person of color
Social-Conflict Approach to Racial and Ethnic Inequality
highlights how racial and ethnic inequality is built into the structure of society, Marxist theory argues that elites encourage racial and ethnic division as a strategy to weaken the working class, multicultural theory notes ways in which much US culture is biased against minorities
the social institution that guides a society's decision making about how to live
the social institution that organizes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
formal organization that directs the political life of a society
based on the private ownership of productive property and a market system regulated by supply and demand
based on collective ownership of productive property, with government control of the economy
by putting the means of production in private hands the capitalist economy serves the interests of these owners, not the interests of the large majority of people
the pursuit of self-interest is beneficial, as people are guided by their self-interest an economy ends up producing the greatest good for the greatest number of people
a political system in which power is exercised by the people as a whole
a political system that denies popular participation
a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation
a market structure in which a few large companies controlled the prices of the industry
the domination of an entire market by a single company
businesses with a legal existence, including rights and liabilities separate from that of their members
a giant corporation composed of many smaller corporation
political alliances of people interested in some economic or social issue
an analysis of the political system that sees power widely distributed among various groups and organizations in a society
an analysis of the political system that sees power as concentrated among a small elite
Marxist Political-Economy Model
an analysis that sees the concentration of wealth and power in society as resulting from capitalism
a mixed economic system of government working closely with large, privately owned companies-Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Saudia Arabia and Kuwait
a mixed economic system where government provides child care, housing, and medical care for the entire population funded by high taxes-Western Europe, Italy France Sweden