109 terms

Humanities 7 Final Exam Master Flashcards 2018

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colonization
the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country or area, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically
imperialism
a policy of extending a country's power and influence over another state or area through military force or other points of leverage
expansionism
A political policy of economic or territory addition and control
Eugenics
A disproven scientific theory that argues that entire communities of people can be categorized and assigned values based on their physical appearance
malaria
A common illness caused by a parasite and frequently transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical climates
"Scramble for Africa"
The occupation, division, and eventual colonization of African territory by European powers in the late 19th century.
annexation
The act of adding territory formerly belonging to another
cause and effect
The relationship between an event and its consequence(s)
protectorate
A state or area that is controlled and protected by another state or area
sovereignty
The authority or right of a state or nation to govern itself
"sphere of influence"
A country or area in which another country has power to affect developments, although it has no formal authority.
globalization
The development of a global or worldwide society in which people, money, information, and goods flow freely across national borders
fertility rate
The number of children the average woman has in her lifetime (often in a given country)
urbanization
The process of making an area more like the city
multinational corporation
A large company that has operations in more than one country (e.g. Nike, Toyota, Apple, Coca-Cola)
industrialization
The development of industries (the production of products for sale) in a country on a massive scale
standard of living
The amount of money and comfort that people have in a particular country
developing country
A country that is poorer than most industrialized countries, is usually agriculturally-focused, and is trying to become more advanced economically (e.g. China, India)
industrialized country
Or a developed country, is one that has a more developed economy and advanced technology (e.g. United Kingdom, United States)
human development index (HDI)
Is used to measure the development of a country by looking at how long people live, their education, and their standard of living
economy
The organized system of human activity involved in the production, selling, buying, exchanging and distribution of goods and services
rate of natural increase
This calculates the rate of births and deaths in a country to see if the population is increasing or decreasing
famine
An extreme scarcity (shortage) of food causing widespread hunger
supranational cooperation
a form of international cooperation where countries give up some control of what happens in their country as they work together to achieve shared goals
common market
a group of countries that acts as a single market for trading, without trade barriers between member countries
tariffs
taxes on goods that are sold across country borders
parliament
an elected body of government, chosen by the people, to make laws and oversee that the government is running properly
net migration rate
is the difference between the number of immigrants (people coming into an area) and the number of emigrants (people leaving an area) in a year
asylum
the protection granted by a nation to someone who has left their native country as a political refugee.
trade bloc
are usually groups of countries in specific regions that manage and promote trade activities
Schengen Zone
is an area comprising 26 European countries that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their shared borders
currency
a type of money specific to a country (from the Latin curren, -entis, meaning "in circulation")
drought
a prolonged period of unusually low rainfall and a shortage of water resulting from this
forced displacement
the forced movement of people from their homes and jobs, caused by a number of factors, the most common being armed conflict (i.e. refugees, "IDPs")
civil war
a war between citizens of the same country
globalization
The development of a global or worldwide society in which people, money, information, and goods flow freely across national borders
fertility rate
The number of children the average woman has in her lifetime (often in a given country)
urbanization
The process of making an area more like the city
multinational corporation
A large company that has operations in more than one country
(e.g. Nike, Toyota, Apple, Coca-Cola)
...
industrialization
The development of industries (the production of products for sale) in a country on a massive scale
standard of living
The amount of money and comfort that people have in a particular country
developing country
A country that is poorer than most industrialized countries, is usually agriculturally-focused, and is trying to become more advanced economically
(e.g. China, India)
...
industrialized country
Or a developed country, is one that has a more developed economy and advanced technology
(e.g. United Kingdom, United States)
...
human development index (HDI)
Is used to measure the development of a country by looking at how long people live, their education, and their standard of living
economy
The organized system of human activity involved in the production, selling, buying, exchanging and distribution of goods and services
rate of natural increase
This calculates the rate of births and deaths in a country to see if the population is increasing or decreasing
famine
An extreme scarcity (shortage) of food causing widespread hunger
human migration
the movement of people from one place to another
push factor
a force that drives people away from a place
pull factor
a force that attracts people to a place
immigration
moving from one country to another to live there permanently
victim
A person harmed as a result of an act of wrongdoing
perpetrator
Someone who carries out or commits an act of wrongdoing
upstander
A person who takes steps to prevent an act of injustice from happening or continuing
bystander
A person that watches an act of injustice but chooses not to prevent it
Proposition 187
A voter initiative in California in 1994 to bar illegal immigrants from schools, hospitals, and most public assistance
unaccompanied minors
Children, mostly from Central America, that make the journey to the United States without an adult
ICE
Immigration and Customs Enforcement - the government agency responsible for enforcing the United States laws on border control, immigration and trade
undocument immigrant
A term used instead of "illegal" immigrant to describe someone without the proper documentation to prove they have permission to live in that country
Enslaved African/
...
Enslaved Person
A person devoid of freedom and personal rights, who is the held in servitude and considered the property of another whether by capture, purchase or birth
Chattel Slavery
A form of slavery, introduced by Europeans, in which the enslaved person is treated as a piece of property belonging to his or her owner and has no rights; this status is for life and their children automatically have the same status; chattel derives from the word for cattle
Trafficking
The transport and trade in humans for economic gain using force or deception
Gold Coast
The name given to an area of the West African coast by early European traders who traded for gold (today Ghana)
Maafa
Derived from a Kiswahili word meaning 'disaster', or 'terrible occurrence'. It is used to refer to the enslavement of African people by Europeans. The definition also refers to the subsequent loss of indigenous African cultures, languages and religions
Memorial
Something that keeps alive the memory of a person or event
Middle Passage
The second stage in the Transatlantic slave trade, on which ships carried enslaved Africans from Africa to either the Caribbean islands or the Americas (see also Triangular trade)
Triangular Trade
The name often given to the Transatlantic slave trade; describes the three sides to the route the slave ships took from Europe to West Africa, then to the Caribbean and the Americas and finally back to Europe; the routes are known as the Outward Passage, the 'Middle Passage', and the Return or Homeward Passage. The term is slightly inaccurate as there were many trade routes used during this period that did not start and end in Europe.
Trading Forts
Europeans built forts as trading bases along the West African coast; they temporarily housed enslaved Africans until they were loaded onto ships
Royal African Company
London-based trading company with a monopoly on the early trade with Africa
scale
tells you how to read the distances on a map
distortion
any change in the shape, size or position of a place when transfered to a flat map
projection
a particular way of showing a spherical Earth on a flat surface
longitude
the imaginary lines that run north and south from the North Pole to the South Pole
latitude
the imaginary lines that run east and west around the globe
Prime Meridien
the most important meridien of longitude that is like the starting point for all other longitude lines (0 degrees) and runs through Greenwich (London), England
Equator
the most important parallel of latitude exactly halfway between the North and South Poles (0 degrees)
thematic map
a map that shows a particular theme or topic
political map
a map that shows where countries, states and/or important cities are located
physical features map
a map that shows any natural characteristic of Earth's surface, such as landforms and bodies of water
orientation
the directionality of a map
population density
the average number of people who live in a unit of area, such as a square mile. Population density measures how crowded an area is
the seven major regions of the world
Canada and the United States, Latin America, Europe and Russia, Africa, Southwest and Central Asia, Monsoon Asia, Oceania and Antarctica
absolute location
this is the precise location of a place on Earth (i.e. street address or coordinates)
relative location
this is the location of one place compared to another
compass rose
two short lines that cross at right angles and are labeled with the directions (north, south, east, west)
cardinal directions
north, south, east, west
map legend/key
shows what symbols are used on a map and what they mean
grid
a system of lines used to divide up space on a map. One type of grid is the "global" grid which shows us longitude and latitude
International Date Line
the next most important meridien of longitude, which is halfway around the world from the Prime Meridien
coordinates
the absolute location of any place on Earth, determined by the point where a longitudinal line crosses a line of latitude
hemisphere
the division of the Earth into halves. The Equator divides the world into Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The Prime Meridien divides the world into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
imperialism
a policy or practice by which a country increases its power by gaining control over other areas of the world
empire
a group of countries under the single supreme authority of an emperor or empress
circumnavigate
to sail around the world (first accomplished in 1522 by a group of Portuguese sailors)
Treaty of Tordesillas
the agreement signed by Portugal and Spain, led by the Pope, to divide the non-European world (i.e. the Americas) in half, giving part to Portugal (Brazil) and the other half to Spain (New Spain and Peru)
conquistadores
a person who conquers another place or people, especially in reference to the Spanish or Portuguese conquerers of the 16th Century
colonialism
the policy of taking control of another country or territory, settling it with your own citizens, and exploiting it economically
authority
the power to give commands and enforce obedience
Spice Islands
the name given to the islands (today known as Indonesia) by Europeans because of their abundance of spices
Silk Road
the overland trade route that connected Asia (China, the East Indies, and India) to Europe and North Africa
Columbian Exchange
the exchange of plants/seeds, animals, diseases, and technology between the "Old World" (Europe/Asia/Africa) and the "New World" (the Americas)
primary source
a document or physical object which was written or created during the time period being studied (i.e. letter, photograph)
secondary source
any source written or created about a historical period produced after that period or event has passed (i.e. history textbook)
voyage
a long journey involving travel by sea
Taínos
the indigenous inhabitants of the islands of Hispañola and Puerto Rico (then known as Quisqueya, Aytí, and Borinquen, respectively)
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