38 terms

Sociology Chapter 12

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Race
a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish if from another group
The myth of Pure Races
There is not one pure race- humans show a mixture of physical characteristics. Racial groups differ from one another only once in a thousand subunits of the genome
The Myth of a fixed number of races
Although large groupings of people can be classified by blood type and gene frequencies, these classifications do not uncover race
The Myth of racial superiority
dividing one another into races and seeing some races as superior to others
Cablinasian
Term that Tiger Woods used to describe his multiracialism
Ethnicity
cultural characteristics- people who identify with one another on the basis of common ancestry and cultural heritage
Genocide
the attempt to destroy a group of people because of their presumed race or ethnicity
Ethnic Cleansing
When the Serbs in Bosnia massacred Muslims
Minority Group
people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination
Dominant Group
Those who do the discriminating- this is the group that has the greater power and privelege
Two ways a group becomes a minority
1) expansion of political boundaries
2) Migration
Prejudice
An attitude or prejudging, usually in a negative way
Ethnic work
activities designed to discover, enhance, maintain, or transmit an ethnic or racial identity
Discrimination
An act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or a group- an action
Racism
When the basis of discrimination is someone's perception of race
Internalization of the norms of the dominant group
People being prejudiced against others within their own group; EX: light skin vs. dark skin
Individual Discrimination
the negative treatment of one person by another
Institutional Discrimination
negative treatment of a minority group that is built into a society's institutions
Example: bankers more likely rejecting the loan applications of minorities
Scapegoat
an individual or group unfairly blamed for someone else's troubles
Authoritarian Personality
Theodor Adorno's term for people who are prejudiced and rank high on scales of informity, intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority, and submissiveness to superiors
Split labor Market
workers split among racial, ethnic, gender, age, etc. this split is used by owners to weaken the bargaining powers of workers
Reserve Labor Force
the unemployed; unemployed workers thought of as being in reserve
Selective perception
seeing certain features of an object or situation, but remaining blind to others
Population Transfer
the forced transfer of a minority group. 2 types: direct and indirect; direct transfer occurs when a dominant group expels a minority. Indirect in when a dominant group make life so miserable for minorities that they leave voluntarily
Internal Colonialism
the policy of exploiting minority groups for economic gain
Segregation
The separation of racial or ethnic groups.
Assimilation
The process by which a minority group is absorbed into the mainstream culture. 2 types: Forced assimilation: the dominant group refuses to allow the minority group to practice its religion, speak its language, or to follow its customs. Permissible assimilation: allows the minority groups to adopt the dominant groups patterns in its own way and own speed
Pluralism
Permits or even encourages racial-ethnic variation
Largest Minority group in the US
Hispanics
States that have the highest percentage of minority groups
Hawaii, California, New Mexico (in that order)
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Plessy v Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Rising expectations
the sense that better conditions are soon to follow, which, if unfulfilled, increases frustration- can cause revolts and violence
Willian Julius Wilson
Sociologist that argues that social class has become more important than race in determining the life chances of African Americans
Reason for Asian American Success
family life, educational achievement, and assimilation into main stream culture
The Invisible Minority
Native Americans- about half live in rural areas and one third in just 3 states, Oklahoma, California, and Arizona
Affirmative Action
goals based on race and sex are used in hiring, promoting, and college admission.
Proposition 209
a 1996 amendment to the California state constitution that made it illegal to give preference to minorities and women in hiring, promotion, and college admissions