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begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product
a metabolic pathway that results in the release of energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds
a catabolic pathway in which the sugar glucose and other organic fuels are broken down in the presence of oxygen to carbon dioxide and water
a metabolic pathway that consumes energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones (are sometimes called biosynthetic pathways)
a term used by biologists to refer to the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
First Law of Thermodynamics
states that "energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed"
Second Law of Thermodynamics
states that "every energy transfer or transformation increases the disorder (entropy) of the universe"
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