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15 terms

AP Biology- Metabolism (8.1)

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Metabolism
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Metabolic Pathway
begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product
Catabolic Pathway
a metabolic pathway that results in the release of energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds
Cellular Respiration
a catabolic pathway in which the sugar glucose and other organic fuels are broken down in the presence of oxygen to carbon dioxide and water
Anabolic Pathway
a metabolic pathway that consumes energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones (are sometimes called biosynthetic pathways)
Bioenergetics
the study of how energy flows through living organisms
Energy
the capacity to cause change
Kinetic Energy
the energy associated with the relative motion of objects
Heat/Thermal Energy
kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules
Potential Energy
energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure
Chemical Energy
a term used by biologists to refer to the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
Thermodynamics
the study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter
First Law of Thermodynamics
states that "energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed"
Second Law of Thermodynamics
states that "every energy transfer or transformation increases the disorder (entropy) of the universe"
Entropy
measure of disorder, randomness