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the lungs are the site of exchange of ____ and ___ ____ between the air and the blood

oxygen and carbon dioxide

what does the upper respiratory tract consists of?

nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and the upper trachea

the lower respiratory tract consists of parts found in the chest cavity what are they?

the lower trachea and the lungs, bronchiole tubes and the alveoli, pleural membranes respiratory muscles, diaphragm and the intercostal muscles

air enters and leaves the respiratory tract through the ___


two nasal cavities are within the skull separated by the __ ____

nasal septum

the __ ___ is ciliated epithelial; inhaled air is first warmed and moistened by this

nasal mucosa

the ____ ____ of the nasal mucosa sweeps mucus and pathogens toward the pharynx

ciliated epithelium

the ___ ___ also add moisture to the inhaled air and its surface area is increased by the ____

nasal mucosa chonchae

___ are 3 shelf like bones on the lateral wall of each nasal cavity


___ ___ in the upper nasal cavities, they decet vaporized chemicals that have been inhaled

olfactory receptors

___ ___ air cavities that lighten the skull and provide resonance for the voice

paranasal sinuses

___ is a muscular tube posterior to the nasal and oral cavities and anterior to the cervical vertebrae


the pharynx is divided into three parts what are they?

nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx

the upper portion of the pharynx is the ____


during swallowing the ____ is covered by the soft palate


nasopharynx is a passage way for __ __

air only

the ____ are lymphatic tissue that destroys pathogens in incoming air or food


___ is behind the mouth; its mucosa is stratified squamous epithelial


the oropharynx serves as both ___ and ___ passageway

air food

on the lateral walls of the oropharynx are the ____ ___, made of lymphatic tissue

palentine tonsils

____ is the inferior part of the pharynx


the oropharynx and laryngopharynx are part of the _____ reflex


the laryngopharynx is also a passageway for ___ and ___

food and air

the laryngopharynx opens into the ___ and the ____

larynx esophagus

____ is often called your voice box


one of the functions of the larynx is ____, the other is to be an air passageway between the ___ and the ___

speaking pharynx trachea

during swallowing the ____ closes over the top of the larynx to prevent the entry of food into the larynx


the mucosa of the larynx is ___ ___ except for the vocal cords

ciliated epithelium

the ___ ____ of the larynx sweep upward to remove mucus and trapped dust and microorganisms

ciliated epithelium

the ___ contains the vocal cords for speaking, which are vibrated by exhaled air to produce sound


the larynx airways are kept open by ___


the largest cartilage of the larynx is the ___ cartilage which is located on the anterior surface


the ___ is about 4-5 inches long and extends from the ____ to the ___ ____

trachea larynx primary bronchi

the trachea is also made up of ____ that keeps the trachea open


the right and left ___ ___are the branches of the trachea that enter the lungs

primary bronchi

within the lungs each ___ ___ branches into secondary bronchi leading to the lobes of each lung

primary bronchus

the further branching of the bronchial tubes is called the ___ ___

bronchial tree

extensive branches become smaller and smaller these are called the _____


the smallest bronchioles terminate in clusters of ___ which are the air sacs of the lungs


the ____ ____ carry air to the lobes of each lung

secondary bronchi

the primary and secondary bronchi are kept open by _____


the ____ are located on either side of the heart encircled and protected by the rib cage


the apex(superior tip) of the ___ is at the level of the clavicle


on the medial surface of each lung is an indentation called the ___


in the ___ is where the primary bronchus and pulmonary artery and veins enter the lungs


the _____ _____ are the serous membranes of the thoracic cavity

pleural membranes

the ___ ___ lines the chest wall, it is a serous membrane

parietal pleura

the ___ ___ is the serous membrane that is on the surface of the lungs

visceral pleura

___ ___ is between the pleural membranes to prevent friction and to keep the two membranes together during breathing

serous fluid

when you have an infection in the serous fluid it is called ___


___ are functional units of the lungs where the actual exchange of gas occurs


the ____ are made of simple squamous epithelial just as capillaries are made of simple squamous epithelial which allows diffusion to take place because of the thinness


_____ is lipoprotein secreted by the alvelor cells, this makes the inflation of the alveoli possible, if this were not produced the inflation of the alveoli would be difficult


the ____ keeps the air sacs open


____ is the term for the movement of air to and from the alveoli


what are the two aspects of ventilation?

inhalation and exhalation

the respiratory centers are located in the ____ and the ___

medulla pons

the ____ generates impulses to the respiratory muscles


nerve impulses from the inspiration in the ___ stimulate contraction of the respiratory muscles


the respiratory muscles are the diaphragm and the external and internal _____ ____

intercostal muscles

____ is a dome shaped muscle below the lungs


what does the diaphragm do during inhalation?

contracts and moves downward

what does the diaphragm do during exhalation?

relaxes and moves upward

what are the nerves to the diaphragm are called?

phrenic nerves

the ___ ____ muscle pulls the ribs up and out for inhalation

external intercostals

the ___ ____ muscle pulls the ribs down and in for exhalation

internal intercostals

the intercostal muscles are attached to the ___


external and internal intercostal muscles are very important for a ___ ____

forced exhalation

____ is the result of the respiratory muscles producing changes in the pressure within the alveoli and the bronchial tree


what are the three important pressures of breathing?

atmospheric, intrapleural, and intrapulmonic pressure

____ ____ is the pressure of the air around us; its on the outside of the body

atmospheric pressure

At __ ___ the atomospheric pressure is higher than it is at higher ___

sea levels altitudes

_____ ____ is pressure within the potential pleural space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura

intrapleural pressure

intrapleural pressure is always ___ ___ atmospheric pressure, this is called ___ ____ because the elastic lungs ara always tending to collapse and pull the visceral pleura away from the parietal pleura but the serous fluid prevents separation of the membranes

slightly below negative pressure

____ ____ is pressure within the bronchial tree and the alveoli

intrapulmonic pressure

this pressure fluctuates above and below atomospheric pressure

intrapulmonic pressure

there are two sites of exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide what are they?

the lungs and the tissues of the body

the exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries is called ____ ____

external respiration

____ ___ is the exchange of gases between the blood in the systemic capillaies and the tissue fluid(cells) of the body

internal respiration

external means air from the ____ enviroment


when the carbon dioxide diffuses from the tissue fluid to the blood this is ____ ____; it is also when the oxygen diffuses from the tissue fluid in the blood

internal respiration

within the body air will diffuse from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration, the concentration of each gas is expresses in a valve called ___ ___; the abbervation for this is ___

partial pressure P

air from external environment; oxygen diffuses from alveoli to blood; carbon dioxide diffuses from blood to alveoli

external respiration

most oxygen is transported on the blood bonded to _____ in the rbcs


the mineral ___ is part of the hemoglobin and gives this protein its oxygen carrying ability


the lower the oxygen concentration in a tissue the more oxygen ____ will release


what will increase the release of oxygen from hemoglobin?

low PO2, high PCO2 and high temperature

carbon dioxide is dissolved in the ___ and some is carried by ___

plasma hemoglobin

most carbon dioxide is transported in the blood as ___ ___ in the plasma

bicarbonate ions

____ ____ is the capacity of the lungs depending on the size and the age of the person

pulmonary volumes

taller people have ___ lungs than short people


as we get older the lung capacity diminshes as lungs lose their _____


___ ___ is the amount of air involved in one normal inhalation and exhalation, average is ___ml

tidal volume 500

____ ___ is the amount of air that can be taken in with the deepest possible inhalation, normal is ___to___ ml

inspiratory reserve 2000 3000

___ ___ is the amount of air that can be exhaled with the most forceful exhalation, ___ to___ml

expiratory reserve 1000 1500

___ __ is the sum of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve, and expiratory reserve

vital capacity

___ ___ is the amount of that remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation, ___ to___ml

residual air 1000 15000

what are the two types of mechanisms for regulating breathing?

nervous mechanism and chemical mechanism

the alveoli are surrounded by what?

pulmonary capillaries

The diffusion of gases takes place across only __ layers of cells.


During inhalation intra pulmonic pressure __ and air ___ the alveoli.

decreases enters

During inhalation, enlargement of the chest cavity cause intra pulmonic pressure to __


During Exhalation the intra pulmonic pressure ___ and __ the aveoli

increase leaves

Inhalation is also called ___


During inhalation, motor impulses fromt the __ travel along the ___ to the diaphragm and along the ____ to the ____.

medulla, phrenic nerve, intercoastal nerves, external intercostal nerves

During inhalation the diaphragm __ and moves ___ and expand the chest.

contracts, downwards

____ muscles pull ribs up and out thus expanding the chest cavity

external intercoastal nerves

Respiratory centers are located in the ___ and the ___

medulla and pons

Within the medulla are the ___ center and ___ center

inspiration expiration

The inspiration center and expiration center work ___ of each other, when one system is ___ the other is ____.

opposite, activated, depressed

The two respiratory centers in the pons work with the medulla to produce a _____

normal rhythm of breathing

The ___ center prolongs inhalation


the ___ center contributes to exhalation


The CNS center the promote inhalation are teh ___ center of the medulla and the ___ center of the pons

inspiration, apneustic

The CNS centers the promote exhalation are the ___ center in the medulla and the __ center of the pons.

expiratory, pneumotaxic

____ helps to prevent overinfaltion of the lungs by detecting stretching and telling the medulla who then depresses the inspiratory center.

Hering-Breuer inflation reflex

The ___ will enable us to breathe faster, sing, breather slower or even hold out breath for a minure or two, however, the ___ will interrupt after a certain length of time.

Hypothalamus, medulla

The medulla also contains relfexes for ___, ___, and ___

coughing, sneezing, and yawning

Chemoreceptors that detect changes in blood gases and Ph are located in the ___ and ___ bodies and in the ___.

carotid and aortic, medulla

A decrease in blood level of oxygen is detected by ____ then it travels to the medulla and the medulla does what?

chemoreceptors, increases respiratory rate

The strongest stimulus for breathing is blood with a high level of ___, b/c of its affects on the __ of the blood.

carbon dioxide ph

__ is the most important regulator b/c excess in the blood will make blood become acidic.

carbon dioxide

The chemoreceptor that most rapidly detects an increase in carbon dioxide is the ___


In response to hypoxia, the breathing will __ to get more oxygen to blood.



decreased oxygen level in blood

In response to high blood carbon dioxide the breathing rate will ___ to ___ more carbon dioxide.

decrease exhale

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