the lungs are the site of exchange of ____ and ___ ____ between the air and the blood
oxygen and carbon dioxide
what does the upper respiratory tract consists of?
nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and the upper trachea
the lower respiratory tract consists of parts found in the chest cavity what are they?
the lower trachea and the lungs, bronchiole tubes and the alveoli, pleural membranes respiratory muscles, diaphragm and the intercostal muscles
air enters and leaves the respiratory tract through the ___
two nasal cavities are within the skull separated by the __ ____
the __ ___ is ciliated epithelial; inhaled air is first warmed and moistened by this
the ____ ____ of the nasal mucosa sweeps mucus and pathogens toward the pharynx
the ___ ___ also add moisture to the inhaled air and its surface area is increased by the ____
nasal mucosa chonchae
___ are 3 shelf like bones on the lateral wall of each nasal cavity
___ ___ in the upper nasal cavities, they decet vaporized chemicals that have been inhaled
___ ___ air cavities that lighten the skull and provide resonance for the voice
___ is a muscular tube posterior to the nasal and oral cavities and anterior to the cervical vertebrae
the pharynx is divided into three parts what are they?
nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
the upper portion of the pharynx is the ____
during swallowing the ____ is covered by the soft palate
nasopharynx is a passage way for __ __
the ____ are lymphatic tissue that destroys pathogens in incoming air or food
___ is behind the mouth; its mucosa is stratified squamous epithelial
the oropharynx serves as both ___ and ___ passageway
on the lateral walls of the oropharynx are the ____ ___, made of lymphatic tissue
____ is the inferior part of the pharynx
the oropharynx and laryngopharynx are part of the _____ reflex
the laryngopharynx is also a passageway for ___ and ___
food and air
the laryngopharynx opens into the ___ and the ____
____ is often called your voice box
one of the functions of the larynx is ____, the other is to be an air passageway between the ___ and the ___
speaking pharynx trachea
during swallowing the ____ closes over the top of the larynx to prevent the entry of food into the larynx
the mucosa of the larynx is ___ ___ except for the vocal cords
the ___ ____ of the larynx sweep upward to remove mucus and trapped dust and microorganisms
the ___ contains the vocal cords for speaking, which are vibrated by exhaled air to produce sound
the larynx airways are kept open by ___
the largest cartilage of the larynx is the ___ cartilage which is located on the anterior surface
the ___ is about 4-5 inches long and extends from the ____ to the ___ ____
trachea larynx primary bronchi
the trachea is also made up of ____ that keeps the trachea open
the right and left ___ ___are the branches of the trachea that enter the lungs
within the lungs each ___ ___ branches into secondary bronchi leading to the lobes of each lung
the further branching of the bronchial tubes is called the ___ ___
extensive branches become smaller and smaller these are called the _____
the smallest bronchioles terminate in clusters of ___ which are the air sacs of the lungs
the ____ ____ carry air to the lobes of each lung
the primary and secondary bronchi are kept open by _____
the ____ are located on either side of the heart encircled and protected by the rib cage
the apex(superior tip) of the ___ is at the level of the clavicle
on the medial surface of each lung is an indentation called the ___
in the ___ is where the primary bronchus and pulmonary artery and veins enter the lungs
the _____ _____ are the serous membranes of the thoracic cavity
the ___ ___ lines the chest wall, it is a serous membrane
the ___ ___ is the serous membrane that is on the surface of the lungs
___ ___ is between the pleural membranes to prevent friction and to keep the two membranes together during breathing
when you have an infection in the serous fluid it is called ___
___ are functional units of the lungs where the actual exchange of gas occurs
the ____ are made of simple squamous epithelial just as capillaries are made of simple squamous epithelial which allows diffusion to take place because of the thinness
_____ is lipoprotein secreted by the alvelor cells, this makes the inflation of the alveoli possible, if this were not produced the inflation of the alveoli would be difficult
the ____ keeps the air sacs open
____ is the term for the movement of air to and from the alveoli
what are the two aspects of ventilation?
inhalation and exhalation
the respiratory centers are located in the ____ and the ___
the ____ generates impulses to the respiratory muscles
nerve impulses from the inspiration in the ___ stimulate contraction of the respiratory muscles
the respiratory muscles are the diaphragm and the external and internal _____ ____
____ is a dome shaped muscle below the lungs
what does the diaphragm do during inhalation?
contracts and moves downward
what does the diaphragm do during exhalation?
relaxes and moves upward
what are the nerves to the diaphragm are called?
the ___ ____ muscle pulls the ribs up and out for inhalation
the ___ ____ muscle pulls the ribs down and in for exhalation
the intercostal muscles are attached to the ___
external and internal intercostal muscles are very important for a ___ ____
____ is the result of the respiratory muscles producing changes in the pressure within the alveoli and the bronchial tree
what are the three important pressures of breathing?
atmospheric, intrapleural, and intrapulmonic pressure
____ ____ is the pressure of the air around us; its on the outside of the body
At __ ___ the atomospheric pressure is higher than it is at higher ___
sea levels altitudes
_____ ____ is pressure within the potential pleural space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura
intrapleural pressure is always ___ ___ atmospheric pressure, this is called ___ ____ because the elastic lungs ara always tending to collapse and pull the visceral pleura away from the parietal pleura but the serous fluid prevents separation of the membranes
slightly below negative pressure
____ ____ is pressure within the bronchial tree and the alveoli
this pressure fluctuates above and below atomospheric pressure
there are two sites of exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide what are they?
the lungs and the tissues of the body
the exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries is called ____ ____
____ ___ is the exchange of gases between the blood in the systemic capillaies and the tissue fluid(cells) of the body
external means air from the ____ enviroment
when the carbon dioxide diffuses from the tissue fluid to the blood this is ____ ____; it is also when the oxygen diffuses from the tissue fluid in the blood
within the body air will diffuse from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration, the concentration of each gas is expresses in a valve called ___ ___; the abbervation for this is ___
partial pressure P
air from external environment; oxygen diffuses from alveoli to blood; carbon dioxide diffuses from blood to alveoli
most oxygen is transported on the blood bonded to _____ in the rbcs
the mineral ___ is part of the hemoglobin and gives this protein its oxygen carrying ability
the lower the oxygen concentration in a tissue the more oxygen ____ will release
what will increase the release of oxygen from hemoglobin?
low PO2, high PCO2 and high temperature
carbon dioxide is dissolved in the ___ and some is carried by ___
most carbon dioxide is transported in the blood as ___ ___ in the plasma
____ ____ is the capacity of the lungs depending on the size and the age of the person
taller people have ___ lungs than short people
as we get older the lung capacity diminshes as lungs lose their _____
___ ___ is the amount of air involved in one normal inhalation and exhalation, average is ___ml
tidal volume 500
____ ___ is the amount of air that can be taken in with the deepest possible inhalation, normal is ___to___ ml
inspiratory reserve 2000 3000
___ ___ is the amount of air that can be exhaled with the most forceful exhalation, ___ to___ml
expiratory reserve 1000 1500
___ __ is the sum of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve, and expiratory reserve
___ ___ is the amount of that remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation, ___ to___ml
residual air 1000 15000
what are the two types of mechanisms for regulating breathing?
nervous mechanism and chemical mechanism
the alveoli are surrounded by what?
The diffusion of gases takes place across only __ layers of cells.
During inhalation intra pulmonic pressure __ and air ___ the alveoli.
During inhalation, enlargement of the chest cavity cause intra pulmonic pressure to __
During Exhalation the intra pulmonic pressure ___ and __ the aveoli
Inhalation is also called ___
During inhalation, motor impulses fromt the __ travel along the ___ to the diaphragm and along the ____ to the ____.
medulla, phrenic nerve, intercoastal nerves, external intercostal nerves
During inhalation the diaphragm __ and moves ___ and expand the chest.
____ muscles pull ribs up and out thus expanding the chest cavity
external intercoastal nerves
Respiratory centers are located in the ___ and the ___
medulla and pons
Within the medulla are the ___ center and ___ center
The inspiration center and expiration center work ___ of each other, when one system is ___ the other is ____.
opposite, activated, depressed
The two respiratory centers in the pons work with the medulla to produce a _____
normal rhythm of breathing
The ___ center prolongs inhalation
the ___ center contributes to exhalation
The CNS center the promote inhalation are teh ___ center of the medulla and the ___ center of the pons
The CNS centers the promote exhalation are the ___ center in the medulla and the __ center of the pons.
____ helps to prevent overinfaltion of the lungs by detecting stretching and telling the medulla who then depresses the inspiratory center.
Hering-Breuer inflation reflex
The ___ will enable us to breathe faster, sing, breather slower or even hold out breath for a minure or two, however, the ___ will interrupt after a certain length of time.
The medulla also contains relfexes for ___, ___, and ___
coughing, sneezing, and yawning
Chemoreceptors that detect changes in blood gases and Ph are located in the ___ and ___ bodies and in the ___.
carotid and aortic, medulla
A decrease in blood level of oxygen is detected by ____ then it travels to the medulla and the medulla does what?
chemoreceptors, increases respiratory rate
The strongest stimulus for breathing is blood with a high level of ___, b/c of its affects on the __ of the blood.
carbon dioxide ph
__ is the most important regulator b/c excess in the blood will make blood become acidic.
The chemoreceptor that most rapidly detects an increase in carbon dioxide is the ___
In response to hypoxia, the breathing will __ to get more oxygen to blood.
decreased oxygen level in blood
In response to high blood carbon dioxide the breathing rate will ___ to ___ more carbon dioxide.
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