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the lungs are the site of exchange of ____ and ___ ____ between the air and the blood
oxygen and carbon dioxide
what does the upper respiratory tract consists of?
nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and the upper trachea
the lower respiratory tract consists of parts found in the chest cavity what are they?
the lower trachea and the lungs, bronchiole tubes and the alveoli, pleural membranes respiratory muscles, diaphragm and the intercostal muscles
the ___ ___ also add moisture to the inhaled air and its surface area is increased by the ____
nasal mucosa chonchae
___ ___ in the upper nasal cavities, they decet vaporized chemicals that have been inhaled
___ is a muscular tube posterior to the nasal and oral cavities and anterior to the cervical vertebrae
one of the functions of the larynx is ____, the other is to be an air passageway between the ___ and the ___
speaking pharynx trachea
during swallowing the ____ closes over the top of the larynx to prevent the entry of food into the larynx
the ___ ____ of the larynx sweep upward to remove mucus and trapped dust and microorganisms
the ___ contains the vocal cords for speaking, which are vibrated by exhaled air to produce sound
the largest cartilage of the larynx is the ___ cartilage which is located on the anterior surface
the ___ is about 4-5 inches long and extends from the ____ to the ___ ____
trachea larynx primary bronchi
within the lungs each ___ ___ branches into secondary bronchi leading to the lobes of each lung
___ ___ is between the pleural membranes to prevent friction and to keep the two membranes together during breathing
the ____ are made of simple squamous epithelial just as capillaries are made of simple squamous epithelial which allows diffusion to take place because of the thinness
_____ is lipoprotein secreted by the alvelor cells, this makes the inflation of the alveoli possible, if this were not produced the inflation of the alveoli would be difficult
nerve impulses from the inspiration in the ___ stimulate contraction of the respiratory muscles
the respiratory muscles are the diaphragm and the external and internal _____ ____
____ is the result of the respiratory muscles producing changes in the pressure within the alveoli and the bronchial tree
what are the three important pressures of breathing?
atmospheric, intrapleural, and intrapulmonic pressure
_____ ____ is pressure within the potential pleural space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura
intrapleural pressure is always ___ ___ atmospheric pressure, this is called ___ ____ because the elastic lungs ara always tending to collapse and pull the visceral pleura away from the parietal pleura but the serous fluid prevents separation of the membranes
slightly below negative pressure
there are two sites of exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide what are they?
the lungs and the tissues of the body
the exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries is called ____ ____
____ ___ is the exchange of gases between the blood in the systemic capillaies and the tissue fluid(cells) of the body
when the carbon dioxide diffuses from the tissue fluid to the blood this is ____ ____; it is also when the oxygen diffuses from the tissue fluid in the blood
within the body air will diffuse from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration, the concentration of each gas is expresses in a valve called ___ ___; the abbervation for this is ___
partial pressure P
air from external environment; oxygen diffuses from alveoli to blood; carbon dioxide diffuses from blood to alveoli
____ ____ is the capacity of the lungs depending on the size and the age of the person
___ ___ is the amount of air involved in one normal inhalation and exhalation, average is ___ml
tidal volume 500
____ ___ is the amount of air that can be taken in with the deepest possible inhalation, normal is ___to___ ml
inspiratory reserve 2000 3000
___ ___ is the amount of air that can be exhaled with the most forceful exhalation, ___ to___ml
expiratory reserve 1000 1500
___ ___ is the amount of that remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation, ___ to___ml
residual air 1000 15000
what are the two types of mechanisms for regulating breathing?
nervous mechanism and chemical mechanism
During inhalation, motor impulses fromt the __ travel along the ___ to the diaphragm and along the ____ to the ____.
medulla, phrenic nerve, intercoastal nerves, external intercostal nerves
The inspiration center and expiration center work ___ of each other, when one system is ___ the other is ____.
opposite, activated, depressed
The two respiratory centers in the pons work with the medulla to produce a _____
normal rhythm of breathing
The CNS center the promote inhalation are teh ___ center of the medulla and the ___ center of the pons
The CNS centers the promote exhalation are the ___ center in the medulla and the __ center of the pons.
____ helps to prevent overinfaltion of the lungs by detecting stretching and telling the medulla who then depresses the inspiratory center.
Hering-Breuer inflation reflex
The ___ will enable us to breathe faster, sing, breather slower or even hold out breath for a minure or two, however, the ___ will interrupt after a certain length of time.
Chemoreceptors that detect changes in blood gases and Ph are located in the ___ and ___ bodies and in the ___.
carotid and aortic, medulla
A decrease in blood level of oxygen is detected by ____ then it travels to the medulla and the medulla does what?
chemoreceptors, increases respiratory rate
The strongest stimulus for breathing is blood with a high level of ___, b/c of its affects on the __ of the blood.
carbon dioxide ph
__ is the most important regulator b/c excess in the blood will make blood become acidic.
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