81 terms

development unit

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developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
zygote
fertilized egg
embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
fetal alcohol syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
rooting reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
sensorimotor stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
preoperational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
schemas
concepts or mental frameworks that organize and interpret information
assimilate
interpret one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
accomodate
adapt one's current understandings to incorporate new info
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
conservation
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 150)
egocentric
The thinking in the preoperational stage of cognitive development where children believe everyone sees the world fro the same perspective as he or she does.
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 151)
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 155)
attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Harry Harlow
development, contact comfort, attachment; experimented with baby rhesus monkeys and presented them with cloth or wire "mothers;" showed that the monkeys became attached to the cloth mothers because of contact comfort
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 156)
Mary Ainsworth
developmental psychology; compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; "The Strange Situation": observation of parent/child attachment
Erik Erikson
neo-Freudian, humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
self concept
a sense of one's identity and personal worth.
strange situation
a procedure used to assess infants' attachment behavior under conditions of increasing stress due to separations from caregivers and strangers
x chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. females have two of these; males have one. one from each parent produces a female child
y chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
gender roles
expectations on how to act as a man or woman
gender identity
one's sense of being male or female
gender typed
following and identify with traditional male or female roles
Jean Piaget
cognitive psychology; created a 4-stage theory of cognitive development, said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth (assimilation and accommodation)
social learning theory
the theory that we learn gender roles by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
gender schema theory
combo with slt. a view of the world through a gender specific lens
adolescence
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
primary sex characteristics
The body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
menarche
the first menstrual period
Lawrence Kohlberg
developmental psychologist kown for his theory on the development of moral reasoning
preconventional morality
first level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior, right vs wrong
conventional morality
By early adolescence, morality focuses on caring for others and on upholding laws and social rules, simply because they are the laws and rules
postconventional morality
some of those who develop to formal operational thought may come to a third level. This affirms people's agreed-upon rights ("people have a right to live" or following what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles ("If you steal the drug, you won't have lived up to your own ideals")
identity
one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
intimacy
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
Alzheimer's disease
an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning
cross sectional studies
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
longitudinal studies
research method in which data is collected about a group of participants over a number of years to assess how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
intimacy
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
generativity
the desire, in middle age, to use one's accumulated wisdom to guide future generations
affiliation
to have a connection or relation to something
achievement
the action of accomplishing something
attachment
An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
productivity
the ability of being productive, , the quality of being productive or having the power to produce
commitment
a decision adhered to for the long term; a promise kept, staying with your husband/boyfriend for ex..long term relationship
competence
the ability to do what is needed
language
spoken, written, words and ways we combine them to communicate meaning
phonemes
in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
morpheme
smallest unit that carries meaning--prefix, suffix
grammar
system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
semantics
set of rules we derive meaning from morphemes, words...in a given language
syntax
rules for sentence structure, rules for combining words and sentences
babbling stage
begins usually at 4 months, infant spontaneously utters sounds at first unrelated to language
one-word stage
1-2 years only speak in single words
two-word stage
2 years, 2 words in speech
telegraphic speech
early stage child speaks in only nouns and verbs
chomsky
inborn universal grammar--believes our brains are wired to process vocab w/o effort, predisposition to language, nature comes out with proper nurture
skinner
nurture plays a large role, operant learning, we learn language like we learn anything else
linguistic determination
language determines the way we think
authoritarian parents
impose rules and expect obedience
permissive parents
submit to kids' desires and make few demands
authoritative parents
demanding and responsive-=