Ch. 2 - Miller and Levine. 2008. Biology
Terms in this set (90)
name of reagent used to distinguish proteins
purple, from blue
colour change indicating that protein is present, in the chemical test designed for that purpose
name of reagent used to test for simple sugars (monosaccharides)
red, from blue
colour change indicating that sugar is present, in the chemical test designed for that purpose
basic unit of matter
the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons
negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
substance consisting entirely of one type of atom
atom of an element that has a number of neutrons different from that of other atoms of the same element
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
link that holds together atoms in compounds
bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
atom that has a positive or negative charge
bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
smallest unit of most compounds
van der Waals forces
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
attraction between molecules of the same substance
attraction between molecules of different substances (apply to water)
material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed
substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
mixture of water and nondissolved materials
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution
weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
compound with an amino group (−NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (−COOH) on the other end
process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction
element or compound produced by a chemical reaction
energy needed to get a reaction started
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
What are the 4 classes or groups of macromolecules?
(such as glucose)
Monomers or building blocks of carbohydrates are ____.
Monomers or building blocks of proteins are ____.
Monomers or building blocks of nucleic acids are ____.
What 3 parts or subunits make up a nucleotide?
Deoxyribose (in DNA)
Ribose (in RNA and ATP)
What 5-carbon sugars would you expect to find in a nucleotide?
Carbohydrates that are sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) often end in the suffix.
Any one of these:
Adenine (DNA, RNA, & ATP)
Guanine (DNA & RNA)
Cytosine (DNA & RNA)
Thymine (only DNA)
Uracil (only RNA)
What nitrogenous bases would you expect to find in a nucleotide?
___ make up polymers. They are like building blocks.
Monomers join together to make up ___.
Which group of biomolecules have this structure?
Monosaccharides (1 monomer, ex. glucose)
Disaccharides (2 monomers, ex. sucrose)
Polysaccharides (many monomers, ex. starch or cellulose)
Carbohydrates can be classified into 3 groups based on size. What are they?
(simple sugar or monosaccharide)
Identify this molecule.
What class of biomolecules does it belong?
Basic energy or fuel source
How does this molecule function in cells?
2. Dehydration synthesis ("building larger by taking away water")
1. What must be removed for two or more monomers to join together to make a larger molecule (polymer)?
2. What is this called?
2. Hydrolysis ("breaking by adding water"
1. What must be added to a polymer to break it down into smaller pieces?
2. What is this called?
1. Primary energy source (glucose)
2. Structure (cellulose)
3. Mid-term storage (starch, glycogen)
Three primary functions of carbohydrates?
Identify this monomer.
If you put many of these molecules together (by removing water), what larger molecule will they form?
Which group of biomolecules includes enzymes?
The "meat" you eat (beef, chicken, ham, etc) is actually ___ and therefore, which type of biomolecule?
This type of macromolecule is nonpolar; it does not dissolve in water.
Long-term, back-up energy storage and insulation are the functions of which biomolecule?
1. Triglycerides (true fats) such as fatty acids, oils, & waxes
List 3 types of lipids.
Top = Saturated Fatty Acid
Bottom = Unsaturated Fatty Acid
Identify these 2 molecules
Bottom one - unsaturated fatty acid
(*Note - double bonds between some of the carbon atoms)
Which of these 2 molecules tends to be liquid at room temperature like a vegetable oil?
(triglyceride= glycerol +fatty acids) are a type of lipid
Identify this type of macromolecule.
Identify this molecule
These 3 molecules make up a(n) ___ which is a monomer of ___.
The test tube on the left; Iodine turns from amber to blue-black in the presence of starch
Iodine is an indicator for starch which is a polysaccharide or complex carbohydrate. Which test tube has starch in it?
The test tube on the far right
The indicator used in these test tubes is Biuret solution. Which test tube shows a positive test for protein?
large molecule formed by joining smaller organic molecules together, usually by dehydration synthesis reaction
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, simple sugars; monomer of complex carbohydrates
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair, structure, regulation, defensse and to make up enzymes
a class of biomolecules insoluble in water and usually made up of fatty acids; make up cell membranes; used by cells for long-term energy storage; examples are fats, oils, waxes, and steroids
a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms; solid at room temperature; examples are butter, and animal fat
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms; liquid at room temperature; examples are vegetable oils
DNA and RNA are examples of this biomolecule
this is the reagent used in the lab to test for simple sugars
this is the reagent used in the lab to test for proteins
this is the reagent used to test for complex carbohydrates/starches
a class of biomolecules that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; key source of energy
A sugar formed from two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis
large macromolecule formed from a long chain of monosaccharides
monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups
groups that give different amino acids different properties
macromolecules made up of one or two chains of nucleotides; includes either RNA or DNA that carry genetic information
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
process where water is removed to put 2 smaller molecules together
Breaking down complex molecules by the addition of water; it is essential for digestion
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