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Terms in this set (26)
During the first two years of life, there is a strong correlation between language and cognition skills.
Children who do not produce words are more likely to play with blocks, while those who do produce words are more likely to play with animate figures such as dolls.
What are two knowledge structures that guide word acquisition?
event-based knowledge and taxonomic knowledge.
What is event-based knowledge?
It consists of sequences of events that are temporal and organized towards a goal.
What is taxonomic knowledge?
It consists of categories and classes of words. New words are compared and organized for retrieval.
Event-based or "world" knowledge influences vocabulary acquisition and may be the basis of taxonomic or "word" knowledge.
In comprehension, a child uses both linguistic and conceptual input plus memory, while in production, a child also uses both linguistic and conceptual input but relies on linguistic knowledge alone for encoding.
An infant can perceive speech-sound differences before he or she can express them.
Up to age two, comprehension is highly context-dependent.
Within the first 50 words, comprehension seems to precede production.
What is the reference principle?
Assumes that people refer. Words stand for entities to which they refer. Toddlers need to be able to distinguish that each referent has a unique symbol. A referent cannot be both a spoon and a cup.
What is the extendability principle?
An infant assumes that there is some similarity that enable the use of one symbol for more than one referent. Cup can be referred to the child's cup, but also to other children's cups.
What is the whole-object principle?
It assumes that a label refers to a whole entity rather than to a part. Table before drawer.
What is a categorical assumption?
It's used by children to extend a label to related entities. Cup may be referred to anything that could hold a liquid.
What is the novel name-nameless assumption?
It enables a child to link a symbol and referent after only a few exposures. A child assumes that novel symbols are linked to previously unnamed referents.
What is the conventionality assumption?
It leads a child to expect meanings to be expressed by others in consistent conventional forms. A car is always a car.
Children actively attempt to understand adult language and to make word-referent associations.
What are the four expressive strategies to gain linguistic knowledge?
Evocative utterances, hypothesis testing, interrogative utterance, and selective imitation.
What are evocative utterances?
They are statements a child makes when naming entities. An adult either approves or disapproves the child's utterance.
What is hypothesis testing?
Used when a child seeks confirmation of a word meaning by saying the word with a rising intonation. An adult either confirms or denies the child's hypotheses.
What are interrogative utterances?
When unaware of an entity label, a child uses an interrogative utterance such as "What?" in order to request information.
Children are actively selecting.
What is selective imitation?
It is used in the acquisition of words, morphology and syntactic-semantic structures. It is the whole or partial repetition of another utterance another speaker said.
Children acquire linguistic markers that occur at the ends of words than at those that appear at the beginning.
The child learns to vary pronunciation. Gradually, the child recognizes that various sound changes, can reflect underlying meaning changes.
The standard order of morphemes used in adult utterances is preserved in child speech. Word order in child speech reflects word order in adult forms of the language.
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