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46 terms

AP Psychology Unit 1 Psychology's History and Approaches

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Empiricism
The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.

A way of knowing that uses personal (sensory) experience (observation) as the means of deciding what is true about behavior
Structuralism
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.

An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components.
Functionalism
A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function- how they enabled us to adapt, survive, and flourish.

A psychology based on the assumption that all mental process are useful to an organism in adapting to the environment.
Experiemental psychology
The study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method.

A psychologist who studies sensation, perceptions, learning, motivation, and emotion in carefully controlled labratory conditions
Psychoanalytic perspective
the perspective that stresses the influences of unconscious forces on human behavior

From Freud's theory which proposes that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality
Humanistic psychology
Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.

A theoretical view of human nature which stresses a positive view of human nature and the strong belief in psychological homeostasis.
Cognitive perspective
A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior

How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
Psychology
The science of behavior and mental processes.

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Wilhelm Wundt
Established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany.

Considered the Father of modern psychology; study of mental processes, introspection, and self-exam; established the first psychology laboratory in Germany
William James
Legendary teacher-writer, mentored Mary Whiton Calkins

1842-1910; Field: functionalism; Contributions: studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; Studies: Pragmatism, The Meaning of Truth
Mary Whiton Calkins
Mentored by William James, who became a pioneering memory researcher and the first woman to be president of the American Psychological Association.

American psychologist who conducted research on memory, personality, and dreams; first woman president of the American Psychological Association
Margaret Floy Washburn
The first woman to receive a psychology Ph.D., who synthesized animal behavior research in the Animal Mind.

1871-1939 American psychologist who was the first woman to earn a doctorate in psychology in the United States; published research on mental processes in animals.
Sigmund Freud
The controversial ideas of this famed personality theorist and therapist have influenced humanity's self-understanding.

1856-1939; Field: psychoanalytic, personality; Contributions: id/ego/superego, reality and pleasure principles, ego ideal, defense mechanisms (expanded by Anna Freud), psychoanalysis, transference
John B. Watson
1878-1958 American psychologist who founded behaviorism, emphasizing the study of observable behavior and rejecting the study of mental processes.

Developed behaviorism-rooted human behavior not in nature but in nurture.
B.F. Skinner
A leading behaviorist, who rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior

1904-1990; Field: behavioral; Contributions: created techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior; Studies: Skinner box
E.B. Titchener
Used introspection to search for the mind's structural elements.

E.B. Titchener was a British psychologist who studied under Wilhelm Wundt. Titchener is best known for creating his version of psychology that described the structure of the mind; structuralism.
Nature-nurture
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.

Refers to the debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture
Natural selection
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

A natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
Gestalt perspective
This theoretical perspective focuses on studying the "whole" experience of the individual rather than breaking down human experiences into pieces.
Wolfgang Kohler and Fritz Perls are associated with this perspective
Biopsychosocial approach
An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.

Assumes that biological, socio-cultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
Biological psychology
A branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior and genetics) and psychological processes.

Focus on biological, or bodily structures, systems and activities that are associated with behaviour and mental processe
Charles Darwin
Argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies.

1809-1882; Field: geology, biology; Contributions: transmutation of species, natural selection, evolution by common descent; Studies: "The Origin of Species" catalogs his voyage on the Beagle
Evolutionary perspective
Focuses on how nature selects traits that promote the perpetuation of one's genetic makeup

Adaptive organisms survive and transmit their genes to future generations
Psychodynamic psychology
A branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influenced behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.

How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
Behavioral perspective
An approach to the study of psychology that focuses on the role of learning in explaining observable behavior.

How we learn observable responses
Cognitive psychology
An approach to psychology that emphasizes internal mental processes

Combined behaviorist methods and studying behavior with a focus on information processing by the mind.
Social-cultural perspective
The study of how situation and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.

How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
Psychometric psychology
The scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.
design and evaluate tests of mental abilities and personalities

Measures someone's behavior somehow to make draw conclusions about their state.
Basic Research
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

Exploration of the causes and consequences of a social problem
Developmental Psychology
The scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

Examines moral, social, emotional, and cognitive development throughout a persona entire life.
Educational psychology
The study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.

It deals with topics related to children and young adults. It evaluates teaching methods, new instructional methods, etc.
Personality psychology
The study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

Focuses on the study of human personality and develop tests to measure personality
Social psychology
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

Study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others.
applied research
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

An attempt to develop new or improved products
Industrial-organizational psychology
The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.

Examines people's behavior in the workplace.
Human factors psychology
The study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments.

Designing optimum work environment
Counseling psychology
A branch of psychology that assists people wiht problems in living (often related ot school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.

Help people cope with crises and challenges to improve social and personal functioning
Clinical psychology
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders: practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.

A subfield of psychology that focuses on the study and treatment of mental disorders
neuroscience perspective
The approach that studies behavior from the perspective of the biological functions of the brain, the nervous system, and other body systems.

How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
Ivan Pavlo
Pioneered the study of learning, was a Russian physiologist.,

Described process of classical conditioning after famous experiments with dogs
Jean Piaget
1896-1980; Field: cognition; Contributions: created a 4-stage theory of cognitive development, said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth (assimilation and accommodation)

A cognitive psychologists who focused on child development studies.
Carl Rogers
1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person

Developed "client-centered" therapy
Dorthea Dix
Study the mentally ill/ she went around and revealed to the public the cruel things they do to the mentally ill.

Dedicated to improving conditions for the mentally ill. led movement to build new mental hospitals and improve existing ones
G. Standley Hall
one of first psychologists to describe adolescence, believed tension between biological maturity and social dependence creates period of storm and stress

Studied psychology of children, and the importance of their adolescent years.
Psychiarty
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.

Medicince dealing with the mind and its diseases
Behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.

How much our genes and environment influence our individual differences.