exam 2 (part 1 chapter 7-9)

James Henslin
According to Karl Marx, what was responsible for breaking the bonds of tradition?
Based on Weber's "ideal type," the perfect bureaucracy is one that has what?
Bureaucractic structure
According to Marx, what refers to a worker's loss of ownership of the product of his or her labor?
When members of an organization are promoted for their accomplishments until they reach their level of incompetence, this is referred to as what?
Peter Principle
The "iron law" of oligarchy is a term coined by what sociologist to describe the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite?
Robert Michels
Although many large corporations promote diversity and engage in highly visible multicultural activities, what is the underlying goal of such programs?
To promote profitability
What is the major emphasis of the traditional orientation to life?
that the past is the best guide for how to live life today
What distinguishing feature of Calvinism contributed to the rise of capitalism?
The sign of God's approval was success
What sociologist is given credit for coining the concept of the "McDonaldization of Society"?
George Ritzer
What is an ideal type?
They are composite based on many specific examples
Which Frenchman toured America in the early nineteenth century, noting the many voluntary organizations in which Americans held membership and documenting these findings in his book, Democracy in America?
Alexis de Tocqueville
What is a common thread that runs through all voluntary associations?
Believe in the cause and obtain benefits for their participation
Define inner circle. .
Individuals who stand firmly behind the group goals (who actively promote the group, and and who are committed to maintaining the organization)
In her study of 47 corporations, what was the relationship that Rosabeth Moss Kanter discovered between the flexibility of a corporation and corporate profit?
Kanter found that the more flexible companies were the more profitable
What refers to preconceived ideas of what someone is like that lead to the person's behaving in ways that match the stereotype?
Self-fulfilling stereotype
Most major companies sponsor "diversity training" lectures and workshops for their employees. What is the ultimate purpose of these efforts?
To promote profitability
What includes violations of norms of ability and violations of norms of appearance?
What theory relies on attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief to explain the social bonds people develop to their respective groups and society?
Control theory
Do functionalists believe deviance has no useful purpose in society and only contributes to social chaos?
Do crimes "in the suites" (white collar crime) or "crime in the streets" cost the American taxpayer more in terms of dollars lost?
White-collar crime
Is violent crime in America rather consistent from state to state in terms of the number of incidents and ratio of incidents to the state's population?
Can official crime statistics gathered by the police and FBI be relied upon for their objectivity and accuracy for measuring crime in their respective jurisdictions?
Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called what?
Differential association theory was developed by what sociologist?
Edwin Sutherland
The term degradation ceremony was coined by what sociologist?
Harold Garfinkel
What theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them?
Strain theory
What are examples of acts that qualify as a white collar crime?
Evading income tax, bribing public officials, and embezzlement
Based on the 2011 edition of the Statistical Abstract in the United States, what state has the lowest rate of violent crime in America? What state has the highest rate of violent crime?
Lowest violent crime state: Maine
Highest violent crime state: Nevada
The total prison and jail population in the United States equals approximately how many people?
2.3 million people
What are the two most significant "anchoring devices" that insulate a person from a life of crime and imprisonment?
Marriage and education
What is the crime with the highest recidivism rate within three years of release from prison?
Stealing cars
In 2008, who had the highest number of victims of hate crimes?
African Americans
In a caste system, social stratification is based on what kind of status?
Ascribed status
In the estate stratification system, members of the third estate are peasants, also called what?
Who emphasized that every society is stratified based on power?
Gaetano Mosca
What is the key to effectively maintaining social stratification by the privileged class?
Dominate its society's institutions
Define socialism.
Step between capitalism and communism (Contributed labor to the common good and receive according to their needs)
The Least Industrialized Nations account for how much of the world's population?
In every society, from the hunting and gathering society to the postindustrial society, the most common basis for social stratification has been what?
What were the three major causes of slavery prior to life in the American colonies?
Debt, crime, and war
A system of beliefs that justifies a particular social arrangement, such as slavery, is called what?
The ability to control others, even over their objections, is referred to as what?
According to Gaetano Mosca, every society is stratified by what to ensure that society's work gets done?
What technologies does the government have the greatest difficulty controlling?
New technologies
What led to the discontinuation of the terms "First World," "Second World," and "Third World" to describe global stratification?
The breakup of the Soviet Union in 1989
What was the purpose of colonialism as it was practiced by the major European powers during eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries?
To exploit the nation's people and resources for the benefit of the "mother" country
The Industrialized Nations control of the Least Industrialized Nations through debts owed to them, which is referred to as what?
What two countries previously classified as Least Industrialized Nations are building strong competition with Western nations because of cheap telecommunications and outsourced jobs from multinational corporations?
China and India