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Exam 2 (Part 2: Chapter 10-12)

James Henslin
STUDY
PLAY
Since 1970, have the richest 20 percent of U.S. families grown richer, and the poorest 20 percent of U.S. families grown poorer?
Yes
How many (a few or a lot) of the U.S. presidents have come from a class of Americans who qualify as being members of the power elite?
A lot
Because of contradicting class locations, who modified Marx's simpler two-class model?
Erik Wright
Define and give examples of "blue bloods."
Old money capitalists (U.S. presidents, congressmen, C.E.Os of franchises-sports)
Because of the objectivity and accuracy of the poverty line concept, do most sociologists agree that the concept of poverty is accurately portrayed in America?
No
Is poverty relatively equally distributed in America by state and between rural and urban settings?
No
What is the typical annual family income in the United States?
$62,000
Who was the sociologist who expanded upon the concept of the power elite to note that no major decision of the United States government was made without its approval?
William Domhoff
Based on the average of 60 nations, what three occupations enjoy the highest prestige ratings?
Physician, Supreme court judge, and College president
What are the four variables Gilbert and Kahl used to develop a six-class model to reflect the class structure of the United States and other capitalist countries?
Property, Power, Prestige, and Education
What political party are members of the upper class more likely to belong?
Republican Party
What is the trend in the United States in which most poor families are headed by women?
Feminization of poverty
Which industrialized nation has the highest rate of child poverty?
United States
Who are the most likely segment of the population in the United States to experience poverty today?
Children
Jeanann and her two children recently went on welfare. Research indicates that it is likely that Jeanann and her children will be in poverty for how long?
One year or less
There were much-publicized myths of the late 1800s that centered around the rags-to-riches exploits of fictional boy heroes. These myths were perpetuated by what author?
Horatio Alger
Do sociologists believe that women are born to be nurturers?
No
In hunting and gathering as well as horticultural societies, who contributed the majority of the food supply to their groups?
Women
Of nearly 1 billion adults worldwide who are illiterate, what fraction are women?
2/3
Is the ratio of women who work for wages evenly distributed throughout the United States?
No
Define "testosterone bonus".
Employers start average males out at higher salaries than women
When was sexual harassment recognized as a social problem?
In the 1970s
What is the normal chromosome configuration for a male?
XY
George Murdock discovered that only a few jobs were consistently male-dominated in his study of 324 societies around the world. What jobs did he consider as male-dominated?
Making weapons, Pursuing sea mammals, and Hunting
What act did members of the National Women's Party engage in to gain the right to vote in 1917?
Picketing
Which wave of feminism was characterized by broad goals ranging from an increase in women's pay to an antiviolence campaign?
Second wave
In which profession have women made the greatest change in earning professional degrees compared to the number of degrees conferred to men?
Family and consumer science
Of the following choices, the doctorate conferred with the greatest percentage of women recipients is what? The doctorate with the greatest percentage to men is what?
Doctorate conferred women: Psychology Doctorate conferred men: Engineering
When many students graduate from college, they are able to earn an extra $1,540 a month between the ages of 25 and 65. How do these students manage to earn this bonus?
Gender Inequality
What is the term for gender discrimination against women who miss the work experience while they care for children at home?
Child penalty
What term describes the invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels of a corporation?
Glass ceiling
The age range of women most likely to be victims of rape is what?
16-19
Do biologists and anthropologists generally agree on a five-member classification system to universally distinguish one race from another?
No
Does the United States Census Bureau allow respondents to choose as many races as they wish in describing who they consider themselves to be?
Yes
May a person voluntarily become a minority?
Yes
Can discrimination occur without the awareness of both those doing the discriminating and those being discriminated against?
Yes
Who are the Minutemen?
Civilian groups
Do most Asian Americans trace their heritage to Japan?
No
How did the 2010 U.S. Census instruct Americans to classify themselves in relation to race?
We were asked to declare whether we were "Spanish/Hispanic/Latino; after this we were ask to check "one or more races"
What is the term used to describe an attitude that exaggerates the virtues of a group, such as all Asian Americans being brilliant or all African Americans being great athletes?
Positive Prejudice
Who was the theorist who concluded that highly prejudiced people are actually insecure conformists?
Theodor Adorno
The group in society made up of the unemployed who can be put to work during times of high production and then laid off when they are no longer needed is called what?
Reserve labor force
What refers to seeing certain features of a situation while ignoring others, and the use of labels to group individual members as if they were all alike?
Selective Perspective
When Bosnian Serbs practiced ethnic cleansing of the Muslim population during the 1990s, they employed a combination of what?
Killing and Rape and forcing survivors to flee in fear
What is another name for multiculturalism?
Pluralism
What is the largest minority group in the United States today?
Latinos
Which state has the highest percentage of minorities?
Hawaii
What did Proposition 209, a 1996 amendment to the California constitution, address?
It made it illegal to to give preference to minorities and women in hiring, promotion, and college admissions