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Biology - Anatomy of joints.

"Gliding" movement of joints:

1 flat bone glides or slides over another (cartilaginous - symphysis: pad or plate of cartilage) *intervertebral discs

"Angular" movement of joints:

changes the angle between 2 joints (synovial joint: made of multiple components) *

""Special" movement of joints:

movement at specific joints (oposites: elevation/depression, protraction/retraction)

3 general catagories of joint movement:

Gliding, Angular, & Special Movements

3 structural categories of joints:

Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial

Fibrous Joints are:

joints composed of collagenous fibers - no joint cavity present (dense CT - white fibers)

Cartilaginous Joints are:

joints connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage

Synovial Joints are:

joints that allow free movement (most of the joints of the body are this) complex and contain multiple components 5 (diarthrosis - full movement)

Sutures are:

fibrous joints located between the flat bones of the *skull - united by a thin layer of dense CT (synarthrosis- NO movement)

Syndesmosis joints are:

fibrous joints contain bones that are bound or bundled by a sheet of dense CT (amphiathrotic- allows slight movement) *Tibiofibular articulation

Gomphosis joints are:

fibrous joints formed by the union of a cone shaped bony process & a bony socket (synarthrosis- NO movement) *root of tooth united with mandible

Synchondrosis joints are

cartilaginous joints joined by a band or plate of hyaline cartilage (synarthrosis- NO movement) *epiphyseal plate

Symphysis joints are:

cartilaginous joints with articulating surfaces seperated by thin layers of hyaline cartilage attached to a pad of fibrocartilage (amphiathrotic- allows slight movement) *intervertebral discs

5 distinct components of a synovial joint:

articular cartilage, joint capsule, reinforcing ligaments, menisci, & bursa

Synovial joint - articular cartilage:

hyaline cartilage that covers the surface of each bone

Synovial joint - joint capsule:

double layered capsule surrounded by a cavity that holds bones together

Outer layer of joint capsule:

external, tough, flexible, fibrous capsule, continuous with the periosteum of bones

Inner layer of joint capsule:

loose CT that covers all internal joint surfaces that do not contain hyaline cartilage, (secretes synovial fluid that prevents friction)

Synovial joint - reinforcing ligaments:

collagenous fibers that strenghten joint (usually thickened portions of fibrous capslue - intrinsic or capsular) *prevents excess movement

Synovial joint - menisci (or articular discs):

separate the cavity into 2 compartments - discs of fibrocartilage between articular surfaces (knee, jaw, sternoclavicular)

Synovial joint - bursa:

flattened fibrous sacs with a synovial membrane and fluid that prevent friction on adjacent structures during joint activity (between skin & bone or bone & ligaments)

Synovial fluid is:

a clear viscous (thick, sticky consistancy) fluid secreted by a membrane to lubricat joints and prevent friction *contains phagocytes & nourishes cartliage

Ball-and-socket (synovial joint):

most freely movable joints, all angular movement (head of one bone fits into socket of another) * hip & shoulder

6 types of synovial joints:

ball-and-socket, condyloid joints, gliding joints, hinge joints, pivot joints, & saddle joints

Condyloid (synovial joint):

have all motion except rotation, oval condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another (metacarpals & phalanges)

Gliding (synovial joints):

have flat or slightly curved articulating sites (carpals & tarsals, and sternum w/ ribs 2-7)

Hinge (synovial joint):

Only flexion & extension - convex surface of one bone fits into a concave surface of another (elbox & knee)

Pivot (synovial joint):

permits rotation - cylindrical surface of one bone rotates within ring formed of bone & ligament (axis (dens) -or- radioulnar joint)

Saddle (synovial joint):

articulating surfaces have both the concave and convex surfaces (carpal & matacarpal of the THUMB)


the part of a muscle that is attached to the immovable bone ("fixed point")


part of the muscle attached to the movable bone (when a muscle contracts across a joint it's _________ pulls toward the origin)

Types of Angular movement:

Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, & rotation

Types of Special movement:

supination/pronation, inversion/eversion, elevation/depression, & protraction/retraction

Types of Flexion (angular movement):

dorsiflexion & plantar flexion

Flexion is:

bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together (bending the knee)

Dorsiflexion is:

flexion of the foot - the ankle movement that brings the foot closer to the shin

Plantar flexion is:

flexion of the foot - movement at the ankle that brings the foot farther from the shin

Extension is:

straightening parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move further apart

Abduction is:

moving a part away from the midline (lifting arm to form 90 degree angle -or- spreading fingers or toes)

Adduction is:

moving a part toward the midline (putting arm down to your side -or- closing fingers or toes)

Circumduction is:

moving a part so that it's ends follow a circular path (moving finger in circular pattern without moving hand)

Rotation is:

moving a part around an axis (moving head from side to side) *can be medial or lateral

Supination is:

turning the hand so that the palm is upward or facing anteriorly

Pronation is:

turning the hand so that the palms are facing downward or posteriorly

Inversion is:

turning the foot so that the plantar surface faces medially (inward)

Eversion is:

Turning the foot so that the plantar surface is facing laterally

Elevation is:

raising a part (shugging the shoulders)

Depression is:

lowering a part (drooping the shoulders)

Protraction is:

moving a part forward (thrusting head forward)

Retraction is:

moving a part backwards (pulling head back)

Ligaments in the shoulder:

coracohumeral, glenohumeral, transvers humeral

The shoulder joint is:

2 joints a ball-and-socket (synovial) joint called the glenohumeral joint & a syndesmosis (fibrous) joint called the acromioclavicular joint

The ball-and-socket in the shoulder is:

surrounded by many reinforcing ligaments and tendons collectively called the rotator cuf

The 4 bursa that lubricate the shoulder:

subscapular, subdeltiod, subacromial, & subcoracois

Shoulder movement can:

occur in any angular plane - flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation and circumduction

The elbow joint is:

2 joints hinge (trochlear notch of ulna/trochlea of humerus) & gliding joint (capitulum of humerus/head of radius)

Ligaments of the elbow:

"Ulnar collateral" ligament medially, "radial collateral" ligament laterally, & "anular" ligament encircles the head of the radius

The elbow joint is a very:

stable joint with many reinforcing ligaments.

The elbow only allows for:

movement by-- flexion and extension

The hip (coxal) joint:

Contains many large reinforcing ligaments & allows same movements as shoulder, but with less range due to bony limitations
(flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation and circumduction)

Ligaments in the hip (coxal) joint:

Iliofemoral ligament, pubofemoral ligament, & ischiofermoral ligament

The knee consists of:

3 joints (2 condyloid joints at the medial and lateral condyles) & (1 gliding joint between the patella and the patellar surface of the femur)

Extracapsular ligaments in the knee:

(strong, on the outside) patellar, tibial collateral, & fibular collateral

Intrascapular ligaments of the knee:

(weaker ligaments on the inside) anterior cruciate & posterior cruciate

Your epiphyseal plates harden:

between the ages of 14-20

With age fibrocartilage loses water, which:

decreases flexibility of intervertebral joints

Collagen starts to change and:

stiffen at the age of 30

Articular cartilage:

(hyaline) resists wear and minimizes friction *and acts asa shock absorber for spoungy bone

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